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Secondary Storage. What is a cylinder? A track? What is secondary storage? What is flash memory? See Unit B in your Concepts Book. Course Guide p. 255. What is (Auxiliary) Storage?. CD-ROM Tape Backup Hard disk Zip Drive Floppy Disks DVD. RAM

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Secondary Storage

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secondary storage
Secondary Storage
  • What is a cylinder? A track?
  • What is secondary storage?
  • What is flash memory?

See Unit B in your Concepts Book

Course Guide p. 255

CS 105 Fall 2006


What is (Auxiliary) Storage?

  • CD-ROM
  • Tape Backup
  • Hard disk
  • Zip Drive
  • Floppy Disks
  • DVD


primary storage

main memory,

Needs power

ROM is built in,

Can change only slightly

CS 105 Fall 2006

booting a computer uses rom
Booting a computer uses ROM
  • Bootstrapping: “to lift yourself up by your own bootstraps.”
  • ROM is built-in memory, doesn’t change, needed when the power comes on.
  • BIOS is a kind of Flash Memory, and can have some settings changed. Its name comes from basic input/output system (BIOS)
  • Finally, software loaded into RAM

CS 105 Fall 2006

size of storage
Size of storage
  • A binary digit; 0 or 1 = a Bit
  • 8 bits, or one character = a Byte (used for one letter)

1000001 is the letter A (65 in ASCII)

CS 105 Fall 2006

thinking of storage
Thinking of storage
  • The letter A is one byte
  • 1 GB is like 1 billion letter A's.
  • What if you could transfer one letter in each second?
  • If there are 31,557,600 seconds in a year, and it would take about 31 years and seven months to transfer 1 GB of information that way!

CS 105 Fall 2006

  • a Bit True or False
  • a Byte used for one ASCII letter
  • 1 Kilobyte capacity of a standard UIUC ID
  • 1 Megabyteroughly a minute of compressed music
  • 1 Gigabyte 18 hours of MP3 music
  • 1 Terabyte 6 minutes of UHDV data

CS 105 Fall 2006

units of measure of storage
Units of Measure of Storage
  • A binary digit; 0 or 1 = a Bit
  • 8 bits, or one character = a Byte
  • 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte
  • 1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte (1024*1024)
  • 1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte
  • 1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte

CS 105 Fall 2006

secondary storage devices
Secondary Storage Devices

Provide permanent storage

Slower to access than RAM

Direct access

Magnetic Storage

Removable (Floppy disk/diskettes)

Fixed (Hard disk)

____________Disk (CD)

Sequential access

Magnetic ___________

Used for cassettes, archives

CS 105 Fall 2006

disk organization
Disk Organization

Tracks : Concentric circles where data is stored

Sectors : Pie-shaped wedges of tracks

CS 105 Fall 2006

disk organization1
Disk Organization

Tracks and __________

Track 00

Access Arm

Track 39

CS 105 Fall 2006


Hard Disk Organization

  • Cylinder:Combination of same-track locations
  • on multiple-surface disks

CS 105 Fall 2006

formatting a disk losing your data
Formatting a disk, losing your data
  • When you format a disk, the operating system erases all bookkeeping information on the disk, tests the disk to make sure all sectors are reliable, marks bad (damaged) sectors, etc. You must format a disk before you can use it.
  • Reformatting a disk does not erase the data on the disk, only the “directory” to find files.

CS 105 Fall 2006





CS 105 Fall 2006

solid state storage and its advantages
Solid state storage and its advantages
  • Flash memory in cameras and phones and home video game players, as secondary storage rather than RAM
  • CompactFlash or SmartMedia cards are examples

CS 105 Fall 2006

why not use flash memory everywhere
Why not use Flash Memory everywhere?
  • Flash memory is noiseless.
  • It allows faster access.
  • It is smaller in size.
  • It is lighter.
  • It has no moving parts.


  • You can buy a 40-gigabyte (40,000-MB) hard drive for less than $200, while a 192-MB CompactFlash costs more!

CS 105 Fall 2006

since we are talking about flash memory what is a smart card
Since we are talking about Flash memory, what is a Smart Card?
  • The term Smart Card is loosely used to describe any card with a capability to relate information
  • Magnetic stripe
  • Memory, optical
  • Microprocessor cards

CS 105 Fall 2006

memory card with a magnetic stripe memory is rewritable
Memory card with a magnetic stripe –Memory is rewritable
  • Your i-card has a cash stripe on the back of the card.
  • The dollar value placed on this stripe can be used to make copies and for some campus purchases.
  • You add funds to the stored value stripe through many of the Value Card Teller machines

CS 105 Fall 2006

sim cards
Sim Cards
  • A smart card fitted in every modern mobile phone which stores the phone's identity and settings.
  • Phone numbers can be stored on the card
  • Its primary function is to allow the networks to identify your phone to make calls.
  • You can move the sim card from phone to phone, taking your info with you

CS 105 Fall 2006

intelligent smart cards
Intelligent Smart Cards
  • See definition:
  • Smart cards must have a central processing unit (CPU), random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM), and storage.
  • The card not the terminal executes the series of commands and sends the results to the terminal

CS 105 Fall 2006

how are they used
How are they used?
  • Electronic purses (EP): smart cards which have stored value of electronic cash.
    • No authentication is necessary
    • Cards can be charged at special dispensers or by telephone and can be locked by a four digit code
    • Can store value in up to five currencies
  • Secure transactions—storing biometric data, etc.

CS 105 Fall 2006

where do they get the power from
Where do they get the power from?
  • Smart cards rely on electricity from a smart card reader for the power they need to run.
  • Wireless smart cards do not require electricity; instead, they have a built-in antenna that absorbs energy from nearby short-range electromagnetic fields.
  • Thus, everyday objects can be made intelligent via "smart" devices.

CS 105 Fall 2006

pc cards usb flash cards
PC cards (USB Flash cards)
  • PC Cards are credit card-size peripherals that add memory, mass storage, and other capabilities to computers—you plug them into the side of your laptop, usually.


  • Hard Drives
  • Joystick Interface Cards
  • Memory Cards - Flash, SRAM, and many others
  • Modem and Ethernet Combination Cards

CS 105 Fall 2006

preset stations on your car s radio
Preset stations on your car’s radio
  • If you turn the ignition off, a car radio still pulls a tiny amount of current from the battery. It saves its data in its RAM. (called also Flash RAM)
  • That is why the car radio will lose its preset stations if your car battery dies or the wires are disconnected.
  • Car radios ought to use Flash Memory—maybe one day they will.

CS 105 Fall 2006