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Mayer - World History - 3 Abrahamic Religions PowerPoint Presentation
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Mayer - World History - 3 Abrahamic Religions


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  1. Islam, Judaism & Christianity

  2. Islam Briefly • Islam is the second most popular religion in the world with over a thousand million followers. Islam began in Arabia and was revealed to humanity by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). • Those who follow Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe that there is only one God, called Allah, who speaks Arabic. • The Muslim calendar has 354 days and is based on the 12 crescent moon cycles.

  3. Islam • ISLAM is the name given to the religion preached by the prophet Muhammad in the 600s A. D. • The Islamic religion started in the area known as Palestine in the year 600AD. • It has about 850 million followers, most of them in the region north and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Islam • The holy book of Islam is the Qu’ran. Muslims believe its words to be those of Allah himself, spoken to Muhammad by an angel. • Allah is the Arabic word for God. He is the same God of Judaism and Christianity. • People who believe these ideas are called Muslims.

  5. Islamic Philosophy • Muslims learn that life on earth is a period of testing and preparation for the life to come. • Angels record good and bad deeds. • People should behave themselves and help others, trusting in Allah's justice and mercy for their reward.

  6. Islam Holy Book • The Muslim scripture is the Holy Qur'an. It is 'the word of God'. Muslim beliefs and practices are rooted in the Qur'an. • Muslims treat the Qur'an with great respect because they believe that the Qur'an is from Allah, and every word and every letter is sacred. • Muslims regard the Qur'an as the unaltered word of God. • It is read from right to left and written in Arabic, the language of heaven.

  7. Islam Place of Worship • The Muslim building for communal worship is called a Mosque. The word comes from the Arabic for "place of prostration". • Worshippers are called to prayer 5 times a day from minarets – towers on the mosque corners. • They contain only designs, no people or animals or furniture. • Normal day of worship is Friday. Jamia Mosque in Derby England

  8. Islam • Muslims pray five times daily in their mosques (churches). • While praying, they face the holy city of Mecca (in Saudi-Arabia) and sometimes kneel with faces to the ground. • All Muslims are required to make a pilgrimage (trip to a sacred place) to Mecca at least once in their lifetime.

  9. Five Pillars Belief system/law code • Shahadah: declaration of faith"I bear witness that there is no god, but God; I bear witness that Muhammad is the prophet of God." By reciting this, one enters Islamic faith. • Salah: prayerMuslims are required to pray five times a day, washing themselves before prayer and facing in the direction of Mecca while praying. • Zakat: giving a fixed proportion to charityMuslims are required to give away a percentage of their earnings to those less fortunate, regardless of their religion. • Saum: fasting during the month of RamadanMuslims fast for one lunar month each year, a period called Ramadan. During this time, Muslims reflect on their behaviour and strive to purify their thoughts. • Hajj: pilgrimage to MeccaIf it is financially possible, Muslims are required to travel to Mecca once in their lifetime.

  10. Main Festivals Continued • Hijja:The month of pilgrimage during which all Muslims, at least once in their life, should try to make the pilgrimage to Mecca and worship at the Kaaba

  11. Founders and Early Leaders • Founders and Early Leaders • Judaism – Abraham and Moses • Christianity – Jesus • Islam - Muhammad

  12. Brief History on Origins • Judaism- The Hebrew leader Abraham founded Judaism around 2000 B.C. Judaism is the oldest of the monotheistic faiths (religions with one God). • Christianity - Founded by Jesus Christ, who was crucified around A.D. 30 in Jerusalem. It was after his death when his followers came to believe in him as the Christ, the Messiah. • Islam - Founded in Arabia by Muhammad between A.D. 610 and A.D. 632

  13. Spread of Each Faith • Early Expansion • Judaism – Little expansion mostly confined to Israel • Christianity – by the end of the 4th century Christianity spread across the entire Roman Empire • Islam – Within 12 years, entire Arabian peninsula; after 100 years stretched from Spain to Southeast Asia

  14. Origins of Each Faith • Date and Place founded: • Judaism – approximately 1300 B.C. in Palestine • Some say the date is unknown • Christianity – approximately 33 A.D. in Palestine • Islam – 622 A.D. in Saudi Arabia

  15. Terms for Followers and Clergy • Followers Called: • Judaism – Jews • Christianity – Christians • Islam – Muslims • Clergy Called: • Judaism – rabbis • Christianity – bishop, pastor, ministers, priest • Islam - imams

  16. Where and When They Worship • House of Worship • Judaism – synagogue or temple • Christianity – church, cathedral, chapel • Islam – mosque • Day of Worship • Judaism – Saturday • Christianity – Sunday • Islam - Friday

  17. Languages of Faiths • Original Language • Judaism – Hebrew • Christianity – Aramaic and Greek, then Latin • Islam – Arabic • Names of God • Judaism – Yahweh and Elohim • Christianity – God, the Trinity • Islam - Allah

  18. Sacred Texts of Each Faith • Sacred Texts • Judaism – Hebrew Bible • Christianity – Old Testament and New Testament • Islam – Qur’an (Koran)

  19. Monotheistic Beliefs • Ultimate Reality (Type of Theism) • Judaism – One God • Christianity – Trinity (God the father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit) • Islam – One God

  20. Divine Revelation How do we know about God? • Judaism – through prophets recorded in the Hebrew Bible • Christianity – through prophets and Jesus as recorded in the Old and New Testament • Islam – through God’s final prophet Muhammad recorded in the Qur’an

  21. Identity of Jesus • Judaism – False prophet • Christianity – Son of God, the Messiah, Savior • Islam – prophet of God

  22. Death of Jesus • Judaism – death by Crucifixion • Christianity – death by Crucifixion • Islam – Did not die, but ascended into heaven (a disciple took his place)

  23. Resurrection of Jesus • Judaism – Denied • Christianity – Affirmed • Islam – Denied; since he did not die

  24. Means of Salvation • Judaism – Belief in one God; good deeds • Christianity – correct belief, good deeds; by faith accept Christ as Savior (Protestants) • Islam – Belief in one God; good deeds and follow Five Pillars of Faith

  25. Afterlife • Judaism – eternal heaven, or no afterlife • Christianity – eternal heaven • Islam – eternal paradise (heaven) • Judaism - eternal hell, or no afterlife • Christianity – eternal hell • Islam – eternal hell

  26. Symbols • Judaism – Star of David • Christianity – cross • Islam – crescent with name of Allah in Arabic

  27. View of Fellow Abrahamic Religions • Judaism – “Islam and Christianity are false interpretations and extensions of Judaism.” • Christianity – “Judaism is a true religion, but with incomplete revelation. Islam is a false religion.” • Islam – “Jews and Christians are respected as fellow believers, but with wrong beliefs and only partial revelation.”

  28. Judaism • JUDAISM is a religion of just one people: the Jews. • JUDAISM was the first to teach belief in only one God. • Two other important religions developed from Judaism: Christianity and Islam.

  29. Judaism Briefly • Judaism is around 3500 years old and is the oldest of the world's four great monotheistic religions (religions with only one God). It's also the smallest, with only about 12 million followers around the world. • Its holy city is Jerusalem. • The Jewish calendar is based on 29 or 30 days therefore they have 12.13 months.

  30. Judaism beliefs • Jews believe that there is a single God who not only created the universe, but with whom every Jew can have an individual and personal relationship. • They await the Messiah, who will be an earthly king. They believe in heaven, but that God determines where they go after life on earth. • Give a tithe (10%). Ten Commandments is the basic code of law.

  31. Judaism • Jews think that God will send a Messiah (a deliverer) to unite them and lead them in His way. • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah. The Jewish people do not agree; they anticipate His arrival in the future. • Judaism teaches that death is not the end and that there is a world to come.

  32. Jewish Philosophy • God is one and unique • God is the creator • God is transcendent • God is immanent. • God is lawgiver • God is personal • We have the obligation to worship • The Torah is God's law • God is judge • The Messiah will come.

  33. Judaism Holy Book • The most holy Jewish book is the Torah(the first five books of the Christian Bible). Others include Judaism's oral tradition, the written form of which is known as the Talmud. • The Torah (scroll of teachings) contains the five books revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. • Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy • Hebrew is read right to left.

  34. Judaism • The "Torah," the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, is the most important Jewish scripture. • It contains the basic laws of Judaism. • Another important book is the "Talmud," serving primarily as a guide to the civil and religious laws of Judaism.

  35. Judaism Place of Worship • Jews worship in Synagogues or temples. Men and women usually sit separately. • Worship is led by a Rabbi. • Friday evening is time for worship. Stamford Hill, London

  36. Judaism • The Jewish house of worship is called a synagogue. • Rabbis (spiritual leaders) conduct services, act as interpreters of Jewish laws, and deliver sermons. • Today there are over 18 million followers of Judaism scattered throughout the world. • A large number of those people live in the Jewish nation of Israel. Over six million live in the United States.

  37. Christianity briefly • Christianity is the world's biggest religion, with about 2.2 billion followers worldwide. • It is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who lived in the Holy Land 2,000 years ago.

  38. Christianity • The early Hebrews who eventually developed into the Jewish religion became the foundation of Christianity. • Jesus, or the Messiah, was a Jewish boy who disagreed with some of the Jewish principles of his day began to profess a new way of thinking. • This eventually led to the beginning of the Christian religion.

  39. Christianity • Christianity started about 2000 years ago about the same time of Jesus. • The central point of Christian belief is that God, the Father, entered into human history as the Son, Jesus of Nazereth, and arose as the Holy Spirit. 

  40. Christian Philosophy • God is the Creator of the universe. There is one God, Who is Three  Persons-      Father, Son and Holy Spirit. • Jesus is both fully man and fully God.  He was born of the Virgin Mary  Crucified, resurrected from the dead, and ascended to the Father.

  41. Christianity Beliefs • Christians believe that Jesus Christ was the Son of God • God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from the consequences of its sins • Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his Crucifixion (the Resurrection) • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah promised in the Old Testament • Christians believe that there is only one God, but that this one God consists of 3 "persons" • Christians believe that God made the world.

  42. Christianity Beliefs continued Christians believe that they can have a personal relationship with God, and that they are saved by faith, not works. Grace is the law code. They believe in actual heaven and hell. They believe that the Bible is the inspired word of God. Their giving is a tithe or offerings.

  43. Christian Philosophy • Sin and Evil are realities in our existence. • The Bible is the Holy Book that records God's revelation. • All believers are promised life everlasting. • The leader of Christianity was Jesus, and the followers was his 12 disciples.

  44. Christians Holy Book • The Bible is the Christian holy book. It is divided into the Old and New Testaments. Parts of the writing contained in the Old Testament are also sacred to Jewish and Muslim people.

  45. Christian Place of Worship • The Christian place of worship is called a Church, which are built in the shape of a cross with the altar facing east towards the rising sun. Services are led by a priest, pastor or reverend. • Day of worship is normally Sunday but most recently Saturday has been added. Westminster Abbey London