Production of ice in tropospheric clouds by will cantrell and andrew heymsfield
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Production of Ice in Tropospheric Clouds by Will Cantrell and Andrew Heymsfield. Presentation by: Emily Riley 27 February 2007. Outline:. Homogeneous Nucleation Theory Assumptions Heterogeneous Nucleation Different Types of Particles Preactivation Contact Nucleation

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Production of ice in tropospheric clouds by will cantrell and andrew heymsfield

Production of Ice in Tropospheric Cloudsby Will Cantrell and Andrew Heymsfield

Presentation by:

Emily Riley

27 February 2007


Outline

Outline:

  • Homogeneous Nucleation

    • Theory

    • Assumptions

  • Heterogeneous Nucleation

    • Different Types of Particles

    • Preactivation

    • Contact Nucleation

  • Secondary Production

    • Hallett-Mossop process

    • Other Mechanisms


Homogeneous nucleation theory

Homogeneous Nucleation Theory

Nucleation Occurs:

energy contribution from bulk > energy contribution surface

  • Jo - long explanation

  • E - energy barrier

    • f(, , c, LH, )

      • f(T)

  • k - Boltzmann’s constant

Nucleation Rate:

J = Joexp(-E/kT)


Homogeneous nucleation theory1

Homogeneous Nucleation Theory

  • Assumes:

    (1) Water molecules randomly arrange into an ice structure

    (2) Liquid transitions directly to hexagonal ice crystal

    (3) occurs in pure water

    (4)The initial ice fragment forms in the bulk


Problem nucleation rate disagreed with observations

Problem: Nucleation rate disagreed with observations

So, Are Assumptions Good?


Assumption 1

Assumption (1):

  • As T decreases, J increases more than the theory predicts! Why?

  • As T decreases, the nature of Hydrogen bonding results in water clustering

  • The clusters grow with decreasing T, while the bond links become more linear

Pruppacher (1995)


Assumption 2

Assumption (2)

  • There can be an intermediate step from liquid to hexagonal crystals

  • Cubic crystals

    • occur T < -70C

    • Can cause clouds to dehydrate more effectively in the upper trop.

Riikonen et al. (2000)


Production of ice in tropospheric clouds by will cantrell and andrew heymsfield

Murphy (2003)


Assumption 3

Assumption (3)

  • Homogeneous nucleation can occur in solution drops

    • Solute becomes dissolved in water such that the drop is like pure water

  • Use a modified temperature - T* = T + T

    • T - melting pt. depression

    •  - Fudge factor that relates fz pt. depression to T


Assumption 31

Assumption (3)

  • Koop et al. (2000)

    • J in an aqueous solution is independent of the nature of the solute, only depends on water activity

    • Good or bad…Don’t know??

  • Seifert et al. (2003a) & Cziczo et al. (2004)

    • While independent of solute nature, may depend on solute size


Assumption 4

Assumption (4)

  • Djikaev et al. (2002)

    • Nucleation could be favored at the surface as opposed to the “bulk”

    • Only important for D < 1m


Heterogeneous nucleation

Heterogeneous Nucleation:

  • Basics

  • Particle and Surface Characteristic Studies

  • Preactivation

    • Two Studies

  • Contact Nucleation

    • One Study


Heterogeneous nucleation1

Heterogeneous Nucleation:

  • May significantly impact radiative properties of clouds

  • J equation still holds, but nowE is decreaseddue to substrate

  • Common substrates - dust, fly ash, soot

  • Interesting substrates - long-chain alcohols, testosterone


Let s look at some studies

Let’s look at some studies...

The importance of dust:

  • Zuberi et al (2002)

    • Found ammonium sulfate drops with dust (kalonite & montmorillonite) immersed in them had freezing temperatures 10C higher than drops without dust

  • Hung et al. (2003)

    • Found ammonium sulfate drops with aerosols (corundum & hematite) raised the freezing temperature 6C


Let s look at some studies1

Let’s look at some studies...

The importance of the surface character:

  • DeMott et al. (1999)

    • Coated soot particles with sulfuric acid

    • For T > -53C untreated, monolayered, and multi-layered soot particles initiated ice formation about the same

    • For T < -53C multi-layered soot particles formed ice better


Let s look at some studies2

Let’s look at some studies...

The importance of the surface character:

  • Gorbunov et al. (2001)

    • If the surface contains chemical groups capable of forming hydrogen bonds with water molecules, the soot’s ice-forming potential could be increased.

    • Such surfaces were 3x more efficient as ice nuclei at -20C than surfaces without such capabilities


Preactivation memory effect

Preactivation : “memory effect”

  • Increase in the effective freezing T after ice nucleator has catalyzed the phase transition once or cooled below -40C

  • Effect lost if T (of the system) exceeds some threshold

  • Occurs due to an ordered, ice like layer of water molecules on the substrate

  • Basically, aged nucleators more efficient


Yet more studies

Yet more studies...

Preactivation : “memory effect”

  • Seeley and Seidler. (2001)

    • Long chain alcohols exhibit preactivation

    • Alcohols could act as effective ice nucleators above the melting point


Yet more studies1

Yet more studies...

Preactivation : “memory effect” continuted:

  • Rosinski (1991) & Rosinski and Morgan (1991)

    • Conditioned Particles

      1. Particles exposed to SS H2O(v) at T < 0C

      2. Resulting drops evaporated

      3. Particles exposed to H2O(v) SS w.r.t. ice but not H2O(l)

    • Result: conditioned particles formed ice crystals by deposition, while non-conditioned particles did not


Contact nucleation

Contact Nucleation:

  • Freezing of a drop initiated by contact with an aerosol particle

  • Substance have a different freezing threshold than when they act as deopostion, condensation, or immersion nuclei

    • Indicates freezing mechanism different for different modes


Secondary production

Secondary Production:

  • Important - Ice production frequently exceeds IN concentration

  • How:

    • Hallet-Mossop process (most common)

    • Mechanical Fracture

    • Ice multiplication


Paquita explains the h m process

Paquita Explains the H-M process….


Paquita explains the h m process1

Paquita Explains the H-M process….


Paquita explains the h m process2

Paquita Explains the H-M process….


Production of ice in tropospheric clouds by will cantrell and andrew heymsfield

Hallett and Mossop (1974), Mossop and Hallett (1974),Mossop (1976)


Studies confirming the hallett mossop process

Studies confirming the Hallett-Mossop process...

  • Hogen et al. (2002)

    • Observed ice crystal concentrations up to 1000 l-1 in UK convection at T = -6C

    • Typical heterogeneous IN concentrations were 3-5 orders of magnitude lower than the measured IN concentrations

  • Ovtchinnikov et al. (2000)

    • Cumulus clouds in NM

  • Modeling studies - confirmed these observations


So is it always the h m process

So, is it always the H-M process?

  • According to Hobbs and Rangno (many papers), Nope. Why not?

    • Clouds glacieated much faster than H-M process could explain

    • Crystal habits observed were often not compatible with the T range in which H-M operates

    • High concentrations of small ice particles appeared concurrently with frozen drizzle drops

  • Conclusion - Origin of ice is a mystery…sounds like a job for more research!


Other mechanisms

Other Mechanisms:

  • Mechanical Fracture

    • Occurs particularly in dendritic crystals

  • Ice multiplication

    • Occurs when large drops shatter upon freezing


Conclusion

Conclusion:

  • Homogeneous Nucleation - Best Understood

  • Secondary Production - Somewhat Understood

  • Heterogeneous Production - “Progress is desperately needed”


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