Protein synthesis
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Protein Synthesis. QUIZ. Where does DNA synthesis occur ? (what organelle?) Pick one…. What does Helicase do? Or what does DNA polymerase do? What is the purpose of DNA synthesis? Explain in your own words what DNA synthesis is Write down this DNA’s complimentary strand G A T A C A.

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Protein Synthesis

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Protein synthesis

Protein Synthesis


Protein synthesis

QUIZ

  • Where does DNA synthesis occur ? (what organelle?)

  • Pick one…. What does Helicase do? Or what does DNA polymerase do?

  • What is the purpose of DNA synthesis?

  • Explain in your own words what DNA synthesis is

  • Write down this DNA’s complimentary strand

    • G A T A C A


I rna vs dna structure

I. RNA vs. DNA Structure

RNA

DNA

  • Single stranded

  • Nucleotide monomers

  • Ribose sugar

  • Adenine

  • Uracil

  • Guanine

  • Cytosine

  • Double stranded

  • Nucleotide monomers

  • Deoxyribose sugar

  • Adenine

  • Thymine

  • Cytosine

  • Guanine

There are 3 types of RNA mRNA; tRNA; rRNA


Protein synthesis

RNA

  • mRNA- is transcribed or re-written in the nucleus then enters the cytoplasm

    • Why use RNA?

  • tRNA- Transfer RNA, has complimentary base pair and brings the amino acid (or mini protein) to the ribosome

  • rRNA- ribosomal RNA


  • Ii transcription

    II. Transcription

    • The first step in creating a polypeptide chain (a protein.)

    • One gene, ( or a sequence of DNA nucleotides), codes for ONE PROTEIN.

      • ***1 gene= one sequence of DNA= 1 protein molecule***


    Iii steps of transcription

    III. Steps of Transcription

    • DNA strands are “unzipped” so nucleotides are UNPAIRED.

    • Free mRNA nucleotides (A, U, C, G) are brought to the exposed DNA and paired up using the base pair rule.

    • Transcription continues until the end site called the terminator is reached.

    • The finished mRNA chain leaves the nucleus to begin its journey to the ribosome.

      • What does the ribosome do?...


    Recap

    Recap

    • We have our mRNA which is a compliment to our DNA

      • Lets say our DNA says ATGCCTAGC

      • Our mRNA would read ____________________

      • This sequence will now leave the nucleus and travel to the ribosome to make…..


    Iv translation

    IV. Translation

    • The 2nd step in creating a protein.

    • Translation happens at the ribosome. Here, the mRNA is “decoded” into amino acids.

    • Each 3 nucleotides on mRNA is called a “Codon” and was transcribed from complementary DNA “Triplets.”

    • 1 triplet = 1 Codon = 1 amino acid

    • The right amino acid is brought to the ribosome and put into the right spot using tRNA, which contains complementary anti-codons.


    Let s practice

    Let’s Practice!

    DNA:

    TACCCGGTATGCCAT ACT

    mRNA Transcript:

    Polypeptide chain:


    V protein production

    V. Protein Production

    http://video.pbs.org/video/1675008673/

    • Because the DNA in the cell determines the proteins that are made, all cells will make different proteins.

    • If a tissue is damaged, the cells around the tissue will be triggered to go through mitosis or increase protein production to repair the injury.

    • Sometimes, a cell becomes injured or mutated and it begins an overproduction of proteins or rapid uncontrolled cell division possibly leading to cancer.


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