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Protein Synthesis. Important Terms:. Gene-segment of DNA DNA-blueprint for protein synthesis; information is “encoded”; 3 letters = 1 amino acid Protein-manufactures in the ribosome and major building material for cells RNA-single stranded; sugar is ribose; has uracil. 3 Types of RNA:.

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important terms
Important Terms:
  • Gene-segment of DNA
  • DNA-blueprint for protein synthesis; information is “encoded”; 3 letters = 1 amino acid
  • Protein-manufactures in the ribosome and major building material for cells
  • RNA-single stranded; sugar is ribose; has uracil
3 types of rna
3 Types of RNA:
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA)-small, cloverleaf-shaped; recognizes m RNA codon in translation
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-helps form ribosomes
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA)-long, single nucleotide that resembles half of DNA molecule, carry message containing intructions for protein synthesis
2 major phases in protein synthesis
2 Major Phases in Protein Synthesis:
  • Transcription – complementary RNA is made at DNA gene
  • Translation – information carried in mRNA is “decoded” to make proteins; occurs in the cytoplasm
  • Example:

DNA gene: AAT-CGT-TCG-ATT-GCG

Transcription: UUA-GCA-AGC-UAA-CGC

Translation : Leu-Ala-Ser-STOP

events in translation
Events in Translation:
  • mRNA attaches to ribosomes
  • tRNA transfers amino acids to ribosomes (there are 20 common types of tRNA), tRNA have a special three-base sequence called anticodon on their “head” that can bind to complementary codons.
  • When tRNA is in position, ribosome moves the mRNA strand along bringing the next codon in position; joined together by enzymes.
events in translation1
Events in Translation:
  • Amino acid is bonded and the tRNA is released and moves away from ribosome to pick another amino acid.
  • When the last codon is read “STOP”, the protein is then released.
slide7

A Closer Look p. 88-89

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What is the difference between

benign and malignant tumor?

3.How does a typical colon cancer develops?

4.What is a carcinogen? Give some examples

5.What causes a normal cell to become

one?

6.What are the treatments for cancer?

7.Are there any side effects for the treatment of cancer? If yes, explain some of the side effects

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