Basic chemistry
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Basic Chemistry. What is matter?. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Solid Liquid Gas. What is Energy?. Energy is the ability to do work or to put matter into motion. Kinetic energy- Movement Potential energy- Stored energy

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Basic Chemistry

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Basic chemistry

Basic Chemistry

What is matter

What is matter?

  • Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.

    • Solid

    • Liquid

    • Gas

What is energy

What is Energy?

  • Energy is the ability to do work or to put matter into motion.

    • Kinetic energy- Movement

    • Potential energy- Stored energy

      All living things are built of matter. Therefore in order to grow and function, they need a continuous supply of energy.

Basic chemistry

In your groups try and list as many forms of energy as you can?

Also, give a list of any sources of energy.

Forms of energy

Forms of Energy

  • Chemical energy

    • Energy stored in bonds of chemical substances

    • All body activities are done by chemical energy

Forms of energy1

Forms of Energy

  • Electrical energy results from the movement of charged particles.

    • In the body, an electrical current is generated when charged particles move across cell membrane.

Forms of energy2

Forms of Energy

  • Mechanical energy

    • Directly involved with moving matter

    • Muscles in your body relax and contract to cause movement.

Forms of energy3

Forms of Energy

  • Radiant energy travels in waves.

    • X-rays, infrared, visible light, radio, ultraviolet

    • Light energy stimulates retinas of your eyes to produce vision.

    • Ultraviolet waves stimulate our bodies to produce vitamin D.

Basic chemistry

In your groups, discuss any circumstances where one energy form is converted into another.

Energy form conversions

Energy Form Conversions

  • Electricity from socket is converted to light by lamp.

  • Chemical energy of ATP is converted to electricity of nervous system or mechanical energy of muscles.

Can energy be destroyed or created

Can energy be destroyed or created?

  • No, energy cannot be created or destroyed.

Energy form conversions1

Energy Form Conversions

  • EFC are quite inefficient because some energy is always lost to the environment as heat.

    • Not lost but unusable

Atomic structure molecules and compounds

Atomic Structure, Molecules, and Compounds

The atom

The Atom

  • The nucleus of an atom is made of protons and neutrons.

  • Proton is a tiny particle that has mass and a positive electrical charge

  • Neutron is a particle with approximately the same mass as a proton but with no charge.

  • Electron (e-) has little mass but has a negative electric charge.

Draw and label the structure of any atom

Draw and Label the structure of any atom.

Atomic symbol

Atomic Symbol

  • On the periodic table, all elements are identified by one, two, or three letter abbreviations.

What does the atomic number represent

What does the atomic number represent?

  • The atomic number represents the number of protons found in that element’s nucleus.

    • Hydrogen atomic number = 1.

    • It has one proton in its nucleus

What is the mass number

What is the mass number?

  • The total number of protons and neutrons is equal to the mass number.

    • Electrons are too small to contribute to mass number.

What are isotopes

What are isotopes?

  • Isotopes are atoms of the same element have different mass numbers.

    • Different number of neutrons.

    • Cl-35 and Cl-37

What are the four most common elements of the human body

What are the four most common elements of the human body?

  • Oxygen 65%

  • Carbon 18.5%

  • Hydrogen 9.5%

  • Nitrogen 3.2%

  • Other 3.9%

Basic chemistry


  • Atoms that gain or lose electrons have a net chemical charge and is called an ion.

    • Na+

    • Mg+2

    • Si +4

    • O-2

What is a molecule

What is a molecule?

  • Molecules are formed when two or more atoms combine chemically.

    H (atom) + H (atom) → H2 (molecule)

What is a compound

What is a Compound?

  • A Compound forms when two or more different atoms bind to form a molecule.

    4H + C = CH4 (methane)

    Compounds always have properties quite different from the atoms making them.

Chemical bonds and chemical reactions

Chemical Bonds and Chemical Reactions

Filling energy levels

Filling energy levels

  • Electrons are distributed over one or more energy levels in a predictable pattern.

    • 1st inner most energy levels holds 2 electrons.

    • Each energy level afterwards holds 8 electrons.

What are valence electrons

What are valence electrons?

  • Valence electrons are found on the outermost energy levels and determine the chemical behavior of the different elements.

What is an ionic bond

What is an ionic bond?

  • Ionic bonds form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.


    • Na(+) + Cl(-) → NaCl

What is a covalent bond

What is a covalent bond?

  • Covalent bonds occur when molecules share electrons.

    For example:

    Hydrogen atom + Hydrogen atom → Molecule of Hydrogen gas

What is a hydrogen bond

What is a hydrogen bond?

  • Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds that form between polar hydrogen compounds.

    • Water’s high surface tension

      • Allows water strider to walk on water

      • Help maintain structure of proteins

Hydrogen bonding

Hydrogen Bonding

What is a chemical reaction

What is a chemical reaction?

  • Chemical reactions involve the making or breaking of bonds between atoms.

What is a synthesis reaction

What is a Synthesis Reaction?

  • Synthesis Reaction occur when two or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger, more complex molecule.

    • Energy-Absorbing Reactions

    • Energy absorbed in bonds

    • Important for growth or repair of worn-out or damaged tissue

      A + B → AB

What is a decomposition reaction

What is a Decomposition Reaction?

  • Decomposition Reactions occur when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules.

    • Chemical energy is released as bonds break.

    • Digestion of food into their building blocks

      AB → A + B

What is an exchange reaction

What is an Exchange Reaction?

  • Exchange reactions occur when there is a switch made between molecule parts and different molecules are made.

    • Involves both synthesis and decomposition reactions

    • Occurs between ATP and glucose to produce ADP and glucose-phosphate effectively trapping the glucose fuel molecule into the cell.

      AB + C → AC + B or AB + CD → AD + CB

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