Let’s go and get some colonies!. Imperialism. Describe at least motives for imperialism. Describe three types of imperialism. Which nations became imperial powers? Which nations were controlled by imperial powers? How did imperial powers justify their control over foreign nations?.
Imperialism: The policy by a stronger nation to attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally or militarily.Definition
Age of Exploration
Europeans raced for overseas colonies
Growth of European commerce andtrade worldwide
Europeans were preoccupied with happenings on the European continent and in the existing European colonies.
Latin American Wars for Independence
Growth of Nationalism
A desire to “civilize” non-Europeans also spurred the development of imperialism.
Other nations emerged in the mid-1800s as the result of political and economic changes in Europe and beyond.
Markets for finished goods
Products of British Industrial Revolution sold in China and India
Sources of raw materials
Egypt – cotton
Malaya – rubber and tin
Middle East – oil
Profits from Industrial Revolution invested in mines, railroads, etc., in unindustrialized areas
Interpreted Darwin’s evolutionary theory in terms of powerful nations
“Only the strong survive”
Powerful nations able to develop areas and resources being “wasted” by native peoples
Increased feelings of white superiority
Increased feelings of Japanese superiority
Eugenics developed as a branch of science
Rudyard Kipling, author of The Jungle Book, was an Anglo-Indian – an Englishman who was born in India.
His ideas about imperialism can be seen in a poem he wrote in 1889, called The White Man’s Burden:
Turn to the White Man’s Burden page in your passport and read the entry together.
Answer the following questionsThe White Man’s Burden
Japanese in Korea
Italians in Africa
“White Man’s Burden”
Rudyard Kipling’s poetry and prose
Whites morally obligated to bring the “blessings of civilization” to “backward” peoples
Cecil Rhodes – imperialism is “philanthropy—plus five percent”
The White Man’s Burden was the idea that Europeans had to conquer the rest of the world, to spread the benefits of Western Civilization.
This was supposed to help them…
and on children’s books
during that time period.
Mahatma Gandhi was born in India around the same time as Rudyard Kipling. Gandhi lived in India and Africa and studied law in England, but he had different ideas about imperialism.
Reporter: “What do you think about Western Civilization?”
Gandhi: “I think it would be a good idea!”
Gandhi led India to independence from England through nonviolent resistance.
Gandhi and others thought that Europeans were just talking about helping the people they conquered.
The West wasn’t really civilized. It was brutally conquering the entire world and taking foreign countries’ natural resources.
Nationalism – national pride
“The sun never sets on the British empire.”
Large empires increased national pride
French acquisitions in Africa and Asia followed France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
Berlin Conference: established rules on how the colonies would behave in regards to AfricaAfrica
In 1839, a Chinese official demanded that the opium trade in Guangzhou stop. The British refused and war ensued.
U.S. and British oil concessions throughout the Middle East
Ottoman Turks granted Germany permission to build Berlin-to-Baghdad Railroad
French – Morocco (1906-1956)
British – Egypt (1914-1968)
Britain held a sphere of influence in Egypt from 1882-1914
Britain gained control of Egypt as Egypt’s protectorate when the Ottoman empire fell apart during World War I
Territory annexed and turned into a colony under the complete control of a foreign power
German colonies in east and southwest Africa – until 1918 and the end of World War I
French Indochine (Vietnam) – until 1955
British Burma – until 1948