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Let’s go and get some colonies!. Imperialism. Describe at least motives for imperialism. Describe three types of imperialism. Which nations became imperial powers? Which nations were controlled by imperial powers? How did imperial powers justify their control over foreign nations?.

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By the end of the day you will be able to

Describe at least motives for imperialism.

Describe three types of imperialism.

Which nations became imperial powers?

Which nations were controlled by imperial powers?

How did imperial powers justify their control over foreign nations?

By the end of the day, you will be able to


Definition

Imperialism: The policy by a stronger nation to attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally or militarily.

Definition


COLONIALISM SPEEDS UP create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally or militarily.

Age of Exploration

Europeans raced for overseas colonies

Growth of European commerce andtrade worldwide

Commercial Revolution


1500s 1700s england france holland portugal and spain wars over colonies

1500s-1700s create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally or militarily.

England, France, Holland, Portugal, and Spain

Wars over colonies

“OLD” IMPERIALISM


Interlude late 1700s late 1800s

Europeans were preoccupied with happenings on the European continent and in the existing European colonies.

American Revolution

French Revolution

Napoleonic Wars

Latin American Wars for Independence

Growth of Nationalism

Industrial Revolution

INTERLUDE – LATE 1700s-LATE 1800s


New imperialism

Beginning circa 1875 continent and in the existing European colonies.

Renewed race for colonies

Spurred by needs created by the Industrial Revolution

New markets for finished goods

New sources of raw materials

Nationalism

Colonies = economic and political power

Social Darwinism = racist justification

“NEW” IMPERIALISM


Exploration

David Livingstone continent and in the existing European colonies.

Mapping the “Dark Continent”

Exploration


Write down the definition of Imperialism. continent and in the existing European colonies.

Create a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting Old Imperialism and New Imperialism.

Finally, do you think the concept was romanticized by some people?

Task


Technological advances

The steam engine continent and in the existing European colonies.

Better transportation

Increased exploration

Improvements in communication

Technological Advances


Concept of races circa 1900
CONCEPT OF “RACES” CIRCA 1900 continent and in the existing European colonies.


Ideological motives

Ideological motives


Social Darwinism development of imperialism. said that strong people should rule over weak people…


The maxim gun

First self-powered machine gun development of imperialism.

The Maxim Gun

One English writer put it this way:

“Whatever happens, we have gotthe Maxim gun, and they have not.”


Nationalism

19 development of imperialism.th century political change

Allegiance to one’s country rather than one’s monarch

Role of the Common people

Unification movements

Militarism

Nationalism


Other nations emerged in the mid-1800s as the result of political and economic changes in Europe and beyond.


Economic motives

  • Industrialized nations sought: political and economic changes in Europe and beyond.

    • Raw materials

    • Natural resources

    • A cheap labor supply

    • New marketplaces for manufactured goods.

Economic Motives


Economic motives1
Economic Motives political and economic changes in Europe and beyond.

Markets for finished goods

Products of British Industrial Revolution sold in China and India

Sources of raw materials

Egypt – cotton

Malaya – rubber and tin

Middle East – oil

Capital investments

Profits from Industrial Revolution invested in mines, railroads, etc., in unindustrialized areas


Justifications

Social Darwinism political and economic changes in Europe and beyond.

Interpreted Darwin’s evolutionary theory in terms of powerful nations

“Only the strong survive”

Powerful nations able to develop areas and resources being “wasted” by native peoples

Racism

Increased feelings of white superiority

Increased feelings of Japanese superiority

Eugenics developed as a branch of science

JUSTIFICATIONS


political and economic changes in Europe and beyond.

Conversion to Christianity

End-of-the-century crusading spirit

Missionaries in Africa, Asia, Hawaii, etc.

RELIGIOUS MOTIVES


Rudyard Kipling political and economic changes in Europe and beyond., author of The Jungle Book, was an Anglo-Indian – an Englishman who was born in India.

His ideas about imperialism can be seen in a poem he wrote in 1889, called The White Man’s Burden:


The white man s burden

Turn to the White Man’s Burden page in your passport and read the entry together.

Answer the following questions

The White Man’s Burden


Social motives
SOCIAL MOTIVES read the entry together.

Surplus population

Japanese in Korea

Italians in Africa

“White Man’s Burden”

Rudyard Kipling’s poetry and prose

Whites morally obligated to bring the “blessings of civilization” to “backward” peoples

Cecil Rhodes – imperialism is “philanthropy—plus five percent”


The White Man’s Burden was the idea that Europeans had to conquer the rest of the world, to spread the benefits of Western Civilization.

This was supposed to help them…


Appeared on advertisements conquer the rest of the world, to spread the benefits of Western Civilization.

and on children’s books

during that time period.


India
India conquer the rest of the world, to spread the benefits of Western Civilization.


Mahatma Gandhi conquer the rest of the world, to spread the benefits of Western Civilization. was born in India around the same time as Rudyard Kipling. Gandhi lived in India and Africa and studied law in England, but he had different ideas about imperialism.

Reporter: “What do you think about Western Civilization?”

Gandhi: “I think it would be a good idea!”

Gandhi led India to independence from England through nonviolent resistance.


Gandhi and others thought that Europeans were just talking about helping the people they conquered.

The West wasn’t really civilized. It was brutally conquering the entire world and taking foreign countries’ natural resources.


POLITICAL MOTIVES about helping the people they conquered.

Nationalism – national pride

“The sun never sets on the British empire.”

Large empires increased national pride

French acquisitions in Africa and Asia followed France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War


The sun never sets on the british empire
The sun never sets on the British Empire about helping the people they conquered.


Africa

Berlin Conference: established rules on how the colonies would behave in regards to Africa

Africa


Military motives

  • Bases would behave in regards to Africa

    • British naval bases

      • Aden, Alexandria, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Singapore

  • Manpower

    • British – Indian sepoys

    • French – north African troops

MILITARY MOTIVES


China

In the 1700s, China enjoyed a favorable balance of trade. would behave in regards to Africa

China


Opium

By 1779, the would behave in regards to Africa

British East

India Company

was importing

opium to China.

Within a generation, opium addiction in China became widespread.

Opium


China and Britain Clash over Opium would behave in regards to Africa

In 1839, a Chinese official demanded that the opium trade in Guangzhou stop. The British refused and war ensued.


Boxer rebellion would behave in regards to Africa


Concession imperialism

Economic privileges and rights given for a specific purpose would behave in regards to Africa

U.S. and British oil concessions throughout the Middle East

Ottoman Turks granted Germany permission to build Berlin-to-Baghdad Railroad

CONCESSION IMPERIALISM


Sphere of influence imperialism

Exclusive or special control over an area would behave in regards to Africa

Examples

British trading rights in China’s Yangtze valley

French trading rights in southeastern China

Japanese trading rights in Korea

SPHERE OF INFLUENCE IMPERIALISM


Leasehold imperialism

Lease over an area would behave in regards to Africa

Suez Canal Corporation

Suez Canal built by French in 1860s

Controlled by British shortly thereafter until 1968

Panama Canal

United States

Germans in Kiachow

French in Kwangchow

British in Weihaiwei

LEASEHOLD IMPERIALISM

Plan of Suez Canal as envisioned in 1881.


Protectorate imperialism

Foreign control exercised through native “puppet” rulers would behave in regards to Africa

French – Morocco (1906-1956)

British – Egypt (1914-1968)

Britain held a sphere of influence in Egypt from 1882-1914

Britain gained control of Egypt as Egypt’s protectorate when the Ottoman empire fell apart during World War I

PROTECTORATE IMPERIALISM


Annexation imperialism

Territory annexed and turned into a colony under the complete control of a foreign power

German colonies in east and southwest Africa – until 1918 and the end of World War I

French Indochine (Vietnam) – until 1955

British Burma – until 1948

ANNEXATION IMPERIALISM


Mandate imperialism

Victors of World War I gained control over German possessions under mandates granted by the League of Nations

German East Africa → Great Britain

Pacific islands north of the equator → Japan

Syria → France

MANDATE IMPERIALISM


Japan

Closed its doors to the World until 1600 possessions under mandates granted by the League of Nations

It opened its doors in the 1800s to the United States.

Soon caught up to the rest of the world in being an industrialized nation.

Japan


The meiji restoration

Tokugawa Shogunate overthrown by imperial forces. possessions under mandates granted by the League of Nations

Emperor Mutsuhito ruled 1867-1912

Modernization

The Meiji Restoration


Japanese moderization
Japanese Moderization possessions under mandates granted by the League of Nations


Japanese industrialization
Japanese Industrialization possessions under mandates granted by the League of Nations


The russo japanese war

1904-1905 possessions under mandates granted by the League of Nations

Japan and

Russia fought

for control of

Manchuria

Japan won

easily; Russia

was humiliated.

The Russo-Japanese War


Japanese empire building 1929 1939
Japanese Empire Building 1929-1939 possessions under mandates granted by the League of Nations


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