Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province
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Lessons learnt from the evolution of the needs and the relations between all stakeholders in a transitional state from relief to development. Case study of Shaman plain flood control project, Yakawlang district, Bamyan Province. Agrarian system and impact assesments.

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Case study of Shaman plain flood control project, Yakawlang district, Bamyan Province

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Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Lessons learnt from the evolution of the needs and

the relations between all stakeholders

in a transitional statefrom relief to development

Case study of Shaman plain flood control project, Yakawlang district, Bamyan Province

Agrarian system and impact assesments

Based on a 5 months survey in Partnership with Solidarités By David LETY


Institutionnal framework

Institutionnal framework

  • Solidarités implements the « rural development support of Yakawlang district» (3 years)

  • four components :

    • Agricultural Training (dissemination of good agricultural practices)

    • Trade Exchange (in and out commercialisation improvement)

    • Micro-Projects (support to the more vulnerable persons and promotion of energy renewable)

    • Rehabilitation of rural Infrastructures: irrigation canals and the Shaman plain flood control


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Yakawlang


Shaman plain

Shaman plain

  • A 2400 ha plain on the band e Amir valley (altitude of 2450 m)

  • About 30 villages and 15 000 inhabitants

  • Agro-pastoral system (meadows, grazing lands and cropping fields)


Problem generated by yearly floods

Problem generated by yearly floods

  • prevents land cultivation and high yields

  • Favours salinity

  • Humidity in the house of the plain: negative impacts on population health

  • Prevents people movements because the main road is flooded for many months


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Natural dam

Flood control project

Canyon entrance and outlet of the water flow

East limit of the plain

Digging of the river

River

Nayak

Objective is to improve 500 ha out of 2400 ha

Map of Shaman plain.

This map is coming from Russian map 1/50,000 scale. One square corresponds to 1 km2.


Challenges of the project in a transitional context from relief to development

Challenges of the project in a transitional context: from relief to development

Land development raises several Issues:

  • In which extent will the farmers modify their cropping and production systems? will the project benefit from all of them?

  • Will land tenure be restructured and how? Is this process likely to generate any new conflicts?

  • Will the communities be able to ensure the sustainability of the new system?

  • As institutions are being rebuilt, new considerations emerged, who is in charge of ensuring that communities’ interests prevail?


Methodology based on a system analysis

Methodology based on a system analysis

  • semi directives enquiries to analyze dynamics of the region

  • Focus on:

    • agriculture

    • social organization and natural resources management

    • land tenure

    • Technical issue is not the aim of this study


Project review

Project review

May 2004: Initial survey : local population strongly requested the Shaman plain flood control, local authorities also ask for the project.

Plan to subcontract feasibility studies

Contract: the whole responsibility of the project is given to the district governor and Solidarités has an assistant status

Feasibility studies: geotechnical, topographical, land use, hydrological.

Due to lack of ex ante data, Solidarités was not able to have a precise hydrological survey: Solidarités decide to implement a trial on work site

Community mobilization, meeting and agreement of Shaman plain representatives for work implementation

Winter 2004-2005 : trial on work site

Call for tender : a private company is selected to dig the canyon

October 2005: Project pending by central government (NEPA answerable to the MEW)


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Diversified production system

« Aylaks »: high plateau for transhumance, fodder and bushes cutting

Main constraint is availability of irrigated lands

« lalmi »: rain fed area

Meadows: fodder cutting

« Abi »: irrigated lands

« Aylaks »

« lalmi »


A dynamic of agricultural intensification

A dynamic of agricultural intensification

Population growth

Decrease of land availability

Agricultural intensification: cash crops, animal husbandry

  • Cultivation of low yield plots in Shaman plain


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Pastures

Meadows and water meadows

Cultivated and irrigated lands

Diversity of land use: cultivated lands, pasture and meadows: a wide range of agricultural potential


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

The downstream mainly cropped


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Meadows and water meadows


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Most of the plain is used as meadow


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Pastures


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Upstream, mainly Pasture


Farming system

Farming system

Land potential: in the irrigated valleys

By increasing land productivity, Shaman plain flood control project is supporting the agricultural intensification


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Cultivated lands: increase of yields


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Cultivated lands over runned by reeds: increase of yields


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Meadows; increase of yield or taken into cultivation


Irrigation and drainage system

Irrigation and drainage system

  • A functional irrigation system

  • Few drainage canals

  • The project is improving an existing system without changing drasticlly it


Case study of shaman plain flood control project yakawlang district bamyan province

Land tenure

Foothills lands: few landowners

Shaman lands: lot of small landowners

Governemental lands

  • Large area of Shaman plain

  • a lot of landowners concerned by the project


Potential impacts

Potential Impacts

The Shaman project is relevant and the expected impacts are mainly positive.

  • How many lands will be dried, considering the first phase of work and the second one?

  • What will be the project impact on the land yields?

  • The digging of new drainage canals will it be needed?

  • What will be the impact on river flow downstream, sedimentation process, erosion in the canyon

Nevertheless, according to a lack of climatic datas, it remains questions on the hydrological impacts


A new power struggle reasons of project pending

A new power struggle; reasons of project pending

  • Since the beginning of project implementation:

  • the district governor is the main responsible of the project

  • But procedures were unclear and Solidarités did not include officially central government.

  • The government is now rightly asking more consultation and claiming more control of activities led by NGOs

  • Reasons of pending based on the issues of environmental impacts and explosives use


Development of institutions some new considerations

Development of institutions, some new considerations

Interests differ:

Central governement:long term vision considering environmental issues

Population: total support to increase land productivity

  • Shaman plain flood control project is supporting endogenous dynamic

  • How to combine environmental and development issues?

  • How to be sure that the communities’ interests prevail ?


Social organization one of the challenges for such project

Social organization: One of the challenges for such project

  • Water management generally involves several villages and relies on social structures.

  • Communities are responsible for the construction of irrigation and drainage canals.

  • How social organization will impact the sustainability of the new system?


Evolution of power struggle and social organization

Evolution of power struggle and social organization

New governement:

Communist administration

War: commandants

Mirs

Arbâb

End of XIX th

1930-1979

1979-1989

1989-2001

2001

implementation of Shouras

Cash allows project implementaion

Hierarchic system

Mobilization for collective work


Social organization and natural resource management

Social organization and natural resource management

  • Nowadays, increase of individualism: new difficulty to organize people without funds.

  • If we have to consider a new organization: can the communities take initiatives for construction, maintenance?

  • Is the « participative approach » really sustainable if it needs external funds to mobilize communities?


Conclusion discussion

Conclusion-discussion

  • Several issue have to be taken into account for such a project of land development: system analysis can be one of the methods

  • How to improve consultation between the stakeholders considering their various interests?

  • How to combine environmental and development issues?

  • How mobilize communities? How make them able to be aware of their responsabilities?


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