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MUHAMMAD and the RISE OF ISLAM. Essential Question : Who was Muhammad and how did Islam unite the Arab people? . Overview of Islam . Around the year 600 CE, a new monotheistic religion called Islam began on the Arabian peninsula.

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Presentation Transcript
Essential Question:

Who was Muhammad and how did Islam unite the Arab people?


Overview of Islam

  • Around the year 600 CE, a new monotheistic religion called Islam began on the Arabian peninsula
  • This new faith was founded by the Prophet Muhammad
  • His followers, called Muslims, spread Islam throughout the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Europe

Overview of Islam

  • By the year 750 CE, Muslim leaders had built an Islamic Empire

Overview of Islam

  • The Islamic Empire connected diverse people through religion and trade
  • Muslim scholars focused on learning and developed numerous cultural achievements that are still used today

Overview of Islam

Today, Islam is the world’s fastest growing religion; it has more than 1 billion followers throughout the world (second only to Christianity)


Arabia, the Birthplace of Islam

The Arabian Peninsula is a desert region with little fertile soil or farming

Most Arabs lived in desert tribes which were centered around families and were ruled by clans


Arabia, the Birthplace of Islam

Arabia was not united under a single government, but Arabs did have a common language (Arabic)

Most Arabs were polytheistic, having an Animist-type religion; some followed Christianity or Judaism

arabia the birthplace of islam

Arabia was the intersection of three continents (Africa, Asia, and Europe) so it was an important region for trade; they were also exposed to much cultural diffusion

Arabia, the Birthplace of Islam

One of the wealthiest trade cities in Arabia was Mecca


Mecca was also a religious city

The Ka’aba (“The Cube”) was a 43 foot high cube structure that held statues of hundreds of gods


Arabs made pilgrimages to Mecca to visit the Ka’aba; violence between the warring Arab tribes was forbidden within 20 miles of the Ka’aba

This law of non-violence helped make Mecca an even more valuable trade city (since merchants could peacefully do business there)


Early Life of the Prophet Muhammad

Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 CE; part of a poor clan, he was orphaned at a young age and raised by his grandparents


Early Life of the Prophet Muhammad

As an adult, Muhammad became an honest and successful merchant

He married a wealthy widow and started a family


Muhammad and Islam

Muhammad’s work brought him into contact with Jewish and Christian merchants, so he was exposed to their religions

Muhammad had a vision of the angel Gabriel in 610 CE; he was told by Gabriel that he was a prophet sent to Earth by God


Muhammad and Islam

He began preaching a new monotheistic religion that worshipped the same God as the God of the Jews and Christians, but in a different way

This religion Muhammad originated was called Islam, which means “submission to the will of God”

the monotheistic religions
The Monotheistic Religions

As this “family tree” illustrates, the leading figures of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are distantly related as descendants of Abraham (the “father” of the Hebrews)


Basic Ideas of Islam

Followers of Islam are called Muslims, which means “one who has submitted to God”

Muslims believe in the “one true God” (same as Jews and Christians) and call God “Allah”



Basic Ideas of Islam

Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last of God’s prophets, so his word is final and unchangeable

The words and teachings of Muhammad are recorded in the Qur’an (or Koran), the sacred book of Islam


The Hijrah

By the year 613, Muhammad began preaching his new ideas in the city of Mecca

Many people were attracted to Islam

However, some people feared Muhammad’s popularity; they felt that Islam would spread elsewhere and Mecca would lose its status as the only holy city in Arabia


The Hijrah

Some Meccans violently attacked Muhammad and his followers

After several years of attacks, Muhammad and his followers fled Mecca and went to the city of Medina

This migration of the Muslims to Medina was called the Hijrah


The Hijrah

In Medina, Muhammad gained many more new converts

These new Muslims put Islam above their families and clans

One thing Muhammad taught Muslims was respect for Jews and Christians (who he called “People of the Book”)


Muhammad’s Return To Mecca

In the year 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca; he had 10,000 soldiers with him and he conquered the city


Muhammad’s Return To Mecca

He destroyed all of the statues of gods in the Ka’aba, leaving only the statue for Allah

This time, the people of Mecca all converted to Islam


Muhammad’s Return To Mecca

Muhammad died in the year 632


The Islamic Empire

After Muhammad, the new Muslim leaders created an empire centered on Islam

The Islamic Empire was based in Arabia and their well-trained soldiers conquered neighboring regions


The Islamic Empire

The massive empire they conquered led to great wealth for Muslims and opportunities to spread Islam


Compare the roles of Jesus, Moses, and Muhammad in the development of the 3 major monotheistic religions: Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.

Match the terms from the word bank with the appropriate prophet.