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The Rise of Islam. 600 C.E. -1200’s C.E. Middle East, ca. 600 A.D. The Eastern Mediterranean. By this time,The lands of Rome had been overtaken by the Goths and Vandals and the East Roman Empire (Byzantine) was spreading its influence into northern territories.

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The Rise of Islam

600 C.E. -1200’s C.E.

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The Eastern Mediterranean

  • By this time,The lands of Rome had been overtaken by the Goths and Vandals and the East Roman Empire (Byzantine) was spreading its influence into northern territories.

  • The Sasanid Empire (224-600 C.E.), which was led by warrior elites, main purpose was to serve as military strongpoints protecting long distance trade. The Silk Road brought many new crops to Mesopotamia and the Sasanid’s again reestablished Zoroastrianism as the faith of the empire. 2nd Persian Empire

  • The proclamations of both Zoroastrianism and Christianity as official faiths marked the emergence of religion as an instrument of politics both within and between empires.

  • This politicization of religion greatly affected the culture of the Silk Road and would shape governments to follow.

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The Byzantine EmpireDuring the Reign of Justinian

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  • Bedouin Arab named Mohammed

  • born ca. 570 A.D.

  • Merchant family, Hasimites

  • Qurayshis tribe, who dominate Mecca

    • controlling much of the religious pilgrim trade

  • raised by relatives

    -father and mother died by age six

    -raised by an impoverished uncle

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  • formal education ?? We don’t know

    • Normally only the Poets of the Tribes could read and write

  • commercial agent for a wealthy widow

    • Khadijah

    • supervising caravans from Mecca, north to Jerusalem

    • contact with both Jews and Christians

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Mohammed, con’t

  • He seems to have made an impression on his boss, because of his reputed honesty

    • married her and retired from commerce

    • to devote himself to religion

    • and to making society more fair and equitable

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Mohammed, con’t

  • monogamous until his wife died

  • eventually married nine wives and had assorted concubines

  • last marriage at 53 to Aishah, daughter of a friend

  • wives: widows of friends or political marriages

    • Women alone in such a world were considered very vulnerable

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Origins of Mohammed’s Teachings

  • periods of unconsciousness are indicated: explanations

    • revelations from Allah by holy trances, spoken to by Gabriel

    • epilepsy or a similar neurological disorder?

    • mental illness or hallucinations ?

  • Mohammed’s explanation:

    • revelations from God

    • Very unpleasant and painful for him

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The Quran

  • Record of revelations received during visions

  • Committed to writing c. 650 CE, compiled (Muhammad dies 632)

    • Under the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan

  • Tradition of Muhammad’s life: hadith

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Historical Origins of His Ideas

  • Arab polytheism

  • Hanifism: a belief in one God traced to Abraham, by tradition

  • Judaism

  • Christianity: Orthodox, Nestorian, Arianism

  • Manichaeism: a mixture of Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Judaism, and so forth

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Beginning of His Ministry

  • at about age 40, after a number of revelations

  • began to preach publicly

  • continued to receive revelations until death

    • usually related to current problems or concerns

    • Religious, political, social, economic

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Early religious career

  • not particularly successful

  • threatened the social, political, and religious structure, with his doctrine of social equity

  • threatened the economic basis of Mecca as a center of religious pilgrimage

  • particularly the Black Rock

    • sacred to the chief deity of the Arabs

  • run out of town, or at least encouraged to leave

    • Went to the desert with his family and lived for about a year

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The Hijra

  • flight from Mecca, to Yathrib (Medina)

    -tradition: invited by the Jews of Medina

  • 622 A.D.

  • beginning of the Islamic calendar

  • forms the umma (community)

  • welcomed, then resisted

  • Mohammed becomes an absolute theocrat

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Muhammad’s Return to Mecca

  • Attack on Mecca, 630 -- jihad

  • Conversion of Mecca to Islam

  • Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with mosques

    • Ka’aba preserved in honor of importance of Mecca

    • Approved as pilgrimage site

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  • holy war against Mecca

  • ten year blockade

  • a deal was made

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The Deal

  • Mecca preserved as a holy city and place of pilgrimage

    • to preserve the economic prosperity

  • the Ka’aba preserved as the central shrine

    • idols and icons destroyed

    • story of its origins emphasized the role of Abraham in its placement

    • pilgrimage as an act of faith, at least once in your life

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The Religion: the Koran (Qu’ran)

  • the Koran (Qu’ran): contains much of Mohammed recounting of Allah’s teachings

  • written down by his followers after his death

    • from notes and memories, on “stones and parchments”

  • Short: 114 chapters

    • arranged from longest to the shortest

    • not by subject or chronologically

    • length is the criterion of order for the text

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The Koran, con’t

  • some “Old” and “New” Testaments stories

    • but sometimes the story seems a bit different to Jews and Christians

  • parables and fables

  • political polemic and prophecy

  • “non-religious” subjects

    • not dissimilar to Jewish and Christian scriptures in some ways

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Five Pillars of Islam

  • uniqueness of God

    • ‘There is no god, but God….’

  • prayer five times a day

  • observe the month of Ramadan

  • give alms to the poor

  • pilgrimage to Mecca

    • If possible, once in your life

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Additional teachings

  • dietary laws

  • no gambling or drinking

  • no sexual irregularities, as defined by tradition and custom

  • no faulty weights or usury

  • no infanticide

  • elaborate rules concerning inheritance and property

  • improvement in the status of women and children

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Changing Status of Women

  • Qu’ran improves status of women

    • Outlawed female infanticide

    • Brides, not husbands, claim dowries

  • Yet male dominance preserved

    • Patrilineal descent

    • Polygamy permitted, Polyandry forbidden

    • Veil adopted from ancient Mesopotamian practice

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Similarities to Judaism and Christianity

  • monotheism (defined a bit differently)

  • insistence on the responsibility of human beings

  • final judgment and rewards

  • angels and spirits

  • practice of virtues: truthfulness, compassion, etc.

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  • an emphasis on compassion and mercy

  • alms giving moderate

  • heaven conceived a bit differently

  • no priests or sacramental system

  • easy conversion: the Shahadah

    • ‘There is no God by Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet.’

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Islamic Law: The Sharia

  • Codification of Islamic law

  • Based on Quran, hadith, logical schools of analysis

  • Extends beyond ritual law to all areas of human activity

    • This is the basis the idea of an “Islamic republic” for instance

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Expansion of Islam

  • early victories

  • backsliders (tribes) punished

    • Apostasy = treason = death

  • assaults on:

    • the Byzantine (East Roman) empire

    • the Sassanid (Persian) Empire also known as Eranshahr or “Empire of the Aryans (Persians)”

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Early Problems

  • Succession ?

    • Mohammed had no surviving male children

    • Daughter: Fatima

    • Son-in-law: Ali, child of his uncle

  • generated a permanent split in the Islamic community

    • Sunnis

    • Shi’as

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Sunnis or “Sunnah”

  • considered themselves the “orthodox” followers of Mohammed

  • consider the Shi’as to be “dissenters”

  • issue: who leads after Mohammed ??

  • the Caliph (or “leader”)

  • went successively to followers

    -Abu Bakr, then Oman

    -then Uthman and

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The Islamic Empire

  • The Rashidun Caliphate ( الخلافةالراشدية) or Rashidun Empire, was the first of the four Arab caliphates.

  • It was controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad, known as the "Rightly Guided" caliphs.

  • Founded after Muhammad's death in 632, the empire lasted until 'Ali's death in 661.

  • At its height, the power of the Rashidun Caliphs extended throughout North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Iranian highlands.

  • Dome of the rock Begun

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The Four Caliphs

  • - 632–634 Abu Bakr

  • - 634–644 Umar

  • - 644–656 Uthman

  • - 656–661 Ali

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Muslim Arab Victories

  • Syria: 635 A.D.

  • Palestine: 636 A.D.

  • Persia: captured in one battle

    • expansion into India

    • expansion to the borders of China

  • Egypt: help by local Christians

  • North Africa: the Berbers

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Expansion and Defeat

  • Spain 711-720 A.D. (Franks)

  • Battle of Tours: October 732 A.D.

    • Charles Martel (Carolingian Family)

  • Siege of Constantinople: 717-718 A.D.

    • Leo III of Byzantine Empire

    • Greek fire

  • beginnings of Christian reconquest of former Roman/Christian territory (Holy Lands)

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Reasons for success

  • exhaustion of Rome and Persia

    • End of a 400 year war

  • nationalist sentiments in Egypt and Syria

  • arguments among Christian factions

  • speed and size of Muslim armies

  • simplicity and uncomplicated nature of Islam

  • acceptance of the Old and New Testament

    • People of the Book

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Consequences of Expansion

  • loss of the oldest and most central lands of Christendom

  • aided the ascendancy of the bishop of Rome

  • virtual collapse of Zoroastrianism as a major religion

  • radically altered the balance of power between the Roman Empire and the East

  • disruption of the Mediterranean economic community

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Abu Bakr 632-634 [1st]

  • not particularly popular with the Muslim community

  • allowed raid, then invasions of Byzantine and Persian territory

  • subjugated any dissident elements or tribes

  • disposed of any “new prophets”

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Success = strain

  • success introduced luxury and change

    • From original caliphs to the Umayyad caliphs

  • new ideas and new ethnic groups

    • with their own customs and heritage, to try to assimilate

  • rise of a sort of “revivalist element”

    • Islam had strayed from its original path and purity

    • Muslims were being led back to paganism

    • caliphs were becoming idle, corrupt, tyrants

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Uthman 644-656 [3rd]

  • murdered: warfare broke out

  • Ali: cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed

  • originally passed over as too young

  • contested the succession

  • Uthman supported by the Umayyad clan

    • early enemies of Mohammed

    • refused to accept Ali’s claims

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Ali 656-661 [4th]

  • Disagreements over selection of caliphs

  • Ali passed over for Abu Bakr [1st]

  • Ali would eventually serve as caliph from 656-661 CE, then he is assassinated along with most of his followers

  • Schism

  • Remaining followers organize separate party called “Shia”

    • Traditionalists: Sunni

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Islamic Caliphates

  • Umayyad 7-8th Century

  • Abbasid 8-13th Century

  • Fatimid 11-13th Century

  • Ottoman 15-20th Century

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  • successful in the war of succession

  • Ali assassinated in 661 A.D.

    • by the Kharijites

  • beginning of the Umayyad Dynasty

  • Non-Muslim replaced by believers and the Introduction of Arabic as the language of government

  • Sunni

  • Damascus then later Cordoba

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Great Mosque at Cordoba (Spain), eighth to tenth centuriesCenter of learningCordoba from Damascus/ Spanish Umayyads/ later Abbasids controlled

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Great Mosque of Damascus (Syria), 706-715Umayyads/2nd Caliphate/ preexisting Roman square towers/ minarets

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Left: Main entrance to the prayer hall of the Great Mosque of DamascusBelow: Spandrel mosaic from the Great Mosque of Damascus

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Policy toward Conquered Peoples Damascus

  • Favoritism of Arab military rulers causes discontent

  • Limited social mobility for non-Arab Muslims

  • Head tax (jizya) on non-Muslims

  • Umayyad luxurious living causes further decline in moral authority

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Factions Damascus

  • Sunni and Shi’as dominant

  • originally political

    • Eventually the differences became dogmatic in emphasis

  • Shi’as become a party of religious dissent

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Perceptions Damascus

  • Sunni: conservative, in favor of the “status quo”

    • consensus is the guiding principle

  • Shi’as: defenders of the oppressed, critics of privilege and power

    • obedience is required only as long as it can be forced, and no longer

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Umayyad Empire Damascus

  • Atlantic Ocean (Iberian ) to India

  • Syria: center of the Islamic World

  • Secular, monarchy?

  • Civil war between various Islamic groups

  • Eventually displaced by the Abbasids and Fatimids [Saladin]

    • an Arab family claiming decent from Mohammed

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Dome of the Rock, Damascus

Temple Mount Jerusalem

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Fatimid Dynasty Damascus


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Fatimid Dynasty Damascus

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Fatimid Empire Damascus

  • Arab Shia Empire eventually replacing the Umayyad Empire in the Magreb, Egypt, and the Levant

  • Founded the city of Cairo and consolidated the Caliph. Islam was briefly united under one caliph.

  • Promoted religious tolerance to Sunnis, Jews, and Coptic Christians

  • Established a massive trade network in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, and East Asia during the Song Dynasty of China.

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Fatimid Decline Damascus

  • Like elsewhere, the Fatimids gave select groups governorship positions. These groups mainly the Zirids in North Africa would eventually declare themselves independent of the Fatimids.

  • Turkish invaders especially in the Levant and the Crusaders would capture even more land.

  • For their political system, they had moved toward military rule and eventually a nephew of one of the generals, a man named Saladin would take control

  • The Sunni Ayyubid Dynasty (Kurdish) under Saladin would rule the lands of modern -day Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and western Saudi Arabia.

  • Crusades had little effect on Fatimids and Ayyubid Dynasties

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Abbasid Caliphate Damascus

750 - 1258

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Abbasid Dynasty Damascus

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The Abbasid Dynasty Damascus

  • Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia, non-Arab Muslims

  • Seizes control of the Levant, Persia and Mesopotamia

  • Baghdad

  • Defeats Umayyad army in 750

    • Invited Umayyads to banquet, then massacred them

    • Only Spain remains Umayyad

    • North Africa is disputed territory, ultimately Fatamid and later Ayyubid under Saladin.

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Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty Damascus

  • Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab)

  • Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion

  • Dar al-Islam- House of Submission which was all the lands ruled by Islamic rule

  • Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces

  • Golden Age of Islam-Cauldron of Cultures

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Abbasid Decline Damascus

  • Civil war between sons of Harun al-Rashid

  • Provincial governors assert regional independence

  • Dissenting sects, heretical movements

  • Abbasid caliphs become puppets of Persian nobility

  • Later, Seljuk Turks influence, Sultan real power behind the throne

  • Almost all of their buildings are now lost to time

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Rise of the Turks Damascus

Seljuks to the Delhi Sultanate

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Turkish Migrations Damascus

  • Consolidation of Tang Dynasty (7th-8th C) pushes nomadic peoples of inner Asia westward just like the Han did to the Huns and others

  • Nomadic peoples begin to convert to Islam as a result of contact with Muslim scholars and mystics

  • The Turkish-speaking people gained control of Bukkara and Samarqand and began to sponsor the development of the Turkish language and a Turkish-Islamic civilization

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Turkish Migrations Damascus

  • One of the Turkish-speaking groups was the Seljuks who entered Central Asia and conquered Afghanistan and Iran.

  • The Seljuks defeated the Abbasid Caliph but left them on the throne and ruled in their name.

  • They titled themselves sultans, claiming authority over the secular side of government while leaving the administration of religious affairs in the hands of the caliph.

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Assault from within and without Damascus

  • The role played by Turkish Mamluks in the decline of Abbasid power established an enduring stereotype of the Turk as a ferocious, unsophisticated warrior.

  • The Sunni Seljuks would go onto conquer the lands of Syria and Anatolia.

  • By the early 12th Century, unrepaired damage from floods, fires, and civil disorder had reduced much of the Empire into ruins.

  • Baghdad would lose a substantial number of its population during this time and would never regain its geographical importance.

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Islam spreads to India Damascus

  • While conquerors brought Islam to the Sind (Indus River), Muslim merchants took their faith to coastal regions in both northern and southern India.

  • These long lasting business ties and the intermarriage of many Muslim men made the introduction of Islam more gradual.

  • Islam also spread a third way to India with the migrations and invasions of Turkish-speaking peoples from Central Asia.

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Turkish invasions Damascus

  • Some of the Muslim Turks entered into the Abbasid realm as mercenaries or migrated into Byzantine Anatolia, while others moved into Afghanistan where they established an Islamic state.

  • The Turks soon turned to rich lands of the south and between 1001 and 1027 mounted seventeen raids into India.

  • The Mahmud Turks demolished Hindu and Buddhist sites and hastened the decline of Buddhism in India. They frequently built mosques on the sites of destroyed temples.

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Ottoman Empire Damascus

A Short Preview

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Ottoman Empire Damascus

  • The Ottoman Empire, also called Osmanian Empire or Uthmaniyah Empire (1299–1922) was a multi-ethnic and multi-religious Turkish-ruled state.

  • The state was known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey by its contemporaries and was succeeded by the Republic of Turkey, which was officially proclaimed in 1923

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Ottoman Empire Damascus

  • The Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries.

  • The Ottoman Empire was, in many respects, an Islamic successor to earlier Mediterranean empires — namely the Roman and Byzantine empires.

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Osman I (r. 1299-1326) Damascus

  • Declared independence from Seljuk Turks in 1299

  • “Bone-breaker”

  • Mongol invasions pushed many groups westward into Byzantine Empire

  • Continuous war with Byzantine Empire

  • Warriors for the faith or Ghazis

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Ottoman Conquest and the Balkans Damascus

  • In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. After defeat at the Battle of Plocnik, the Turkish victory at the Battle of Kosovo paved the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe.

  • With the extension of Turkish dominion into the Balkans, the strategic conquest of Constantinople became a crucial objective.

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Tamerlane (1336-1405) Damascusor “Timur, the Lame


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Mehmet I (r. 1413-1421) Damascus

  • After the defeat of the Ottomans by the Turko-Mongol/Tatar Tamerlane, the Ottoman Empire went into a period of chaos and civil war.

  • The disorder ended with Mehmet I emerged and restored Ottoman power.

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Mehmet II: 1444-1445; 1451-1481 Damascus

”The Conqueror”

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Mehmet II, The Conqueror Damascus

  • Mehmet I’s grandson reorganized the structure of both the state and military and captured Constantinople in 1453.

  • The city became the new capital of the Ottomans and Mehmet II assumed the title of Kayser-I-Rum or Roman Emperor

  • Attempt after his death to take Rome failed

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Hagia Sophia Damascus

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The Ottoman Bureaucracy Damascus



Social / MilitaryDivans

Heads of IndividualReligious Millets



Local Administrators& Military


Landowners / Tax Collectors

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Few conflicts with Christians Damascus

Rival Muslim groups had claims to dynastic rule

Multiethnic army

Recruited Christian children for army (devsirme)


Arabic and Ottoman languages

Created a separate class with allegiance to sultan


Palace schools and governors or janissaries

Ottoman Society

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Janissaries Damascus

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Turkish and Mongol Damascusmigrations

South Asia

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The Sultanate of Delhi Damascus

  • During the late 12th Century, Mahmud’s successors mounted a more systematic campaign to conqueror India and place it under Islamic rule.

  • By the early 13th Century, they had conquered most of the Hindu kingdoms and established an Islamic state known as the Sultanate of Delhi.

  • The sultans established their capital at Delhi and ruled India at least in name for more than three centuries, from 1206 to 1526.

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Delhi Sultanate Damascus

  • During the 14th Century the sultans of Delhi commanded an army of 300,000 and their state ranked among the most powerful in the Islamic world.

  • They had no permanent bureaucracy or administrative apparatus and their authority was limited to the lands around Delhi.

  • Even though they imposed a presence of Islamic political and military authority, their ability was dependant upon the goodwill of Hindu kings to carryout their policies.

  • Many of the sultans in fact had been assassinated but nevertheless,the sultans prominently sponsored Islam and helped to establish a secure place for their faith in India.

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Delhi Sultanate Damascus

  • Islamic influence in India would continue for several hundred years under various Muslim kingdoms.

  • India did not generate the large-scale, centralized, imperial state that guided the fortunes of postclassical societies in the Eastern Mediterranean, SW Asia, or China

  • On the basis of trade, common social structures, and inherited cultural traditions, a distinctive society would emerge in India.

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Islam in East Africa Damascus

The Swahili Coast

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Swahili coast Damascus

  • 1800 miles long

  • Diffusion from Indian, Arab, Chinese, and others

  • Islam perhaps most enduring

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Swahili Coast Damascus

  • While the Swahili Coast had kingdoms, it was not controlled by just one kingdom.

  • The region was a center hub of trade and commerce in east Africa.

  • The introduction of various traditions such as Islam helped to shape the character of the Swahili Coast.

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Swahili Coast Damascus

  • While trans-Saharan caravan traffic linked west Africa to the larger trading world, merchant mariners sailing in the sea lanes of the Indian Ocean formed a similar service for coastal east Africa or the Swahili Coast.

  • Swahili is an Arabic term meaning “coasters.”

  • The Swahili dominated the east African coast from Mogadishu in ht north to Kilwa, the Comoro Islands, and Sofala in the south.

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Swahili Coast Damascus

  • By the tenth century, Swahili society attracted increasing attention from Islamic merchants.

  • From the interior regions of east Africa, the Swahili obtained gold, slaves, ivory, and exotic local products.

  • In exchange, the Swahili city-states received pottery, glass, and textiles that the Muslim merchants brought from Persia, India, and China.

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Swahili City-States Damascus

  • By the 11th and 12th Century, trade had brought tremendous wealth to coastal east Africa.

  • Mogadishu, Lamu, Malindi, Mombasa, Zanzibar, Kilwa, Mozambique, and Sofala were some of the trade centers that eventually developed into powerful city-states governed by a king who supervised trade and organized public life in the region.

  • Wood structures to Coral and stone based structures

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Islam under attack: DamascusCrusades and the Mongols

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Enemies from beyond… Damascus

  • The Seljuk Turks (Abbasid) were best by internal quarrels when the first crusading armies reached the Holy Land.

  • The Crusades had little long lasting impact of Islamic lands

  • Muslims would eventually rise up and face the European enemy in the mid-twelfth century

  • The Mongol invasions especially their destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad in 1258, shook the world of Islam

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Crusades Damascus

  • First Crusade 1095-1099

  • Second Crusade 1147-1149

  • Third Crusade 1189-1192*

  • Fourth Crusade 1202-1204

  • Children’s Crusade 1212

  • 5th-8th Crusades 1218-1291

  • Crusaders driven from SW Asia

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Islam on European legacy Damascus

  • Inquisitions -Spanish and Portuguese

  • Renaissance

  • Keepers of the Ancients- Greece, Persia, and Rome

  • Writing, Scholars, Mathematics, etc.

  • Dark Ages were over and Europe would benefit from fall of Muslim Empires

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Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition Damascus

  • Islamic values

    • Uniformity of Islamic law in Dar al-Islam

    • Establishment of madrasas (Schools)

    • Importance of the Hajj

  • Sufi missionaries

    • Asceticism, mysticism

    • Some tension with orthodox Islamic theologians

    • Wide popularity

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Cultural influences on Islam Damascus

  • Persia (Iran)

    • Administration and governance

    • Literature

    • Artwork (Justinian and Hagya Sophia)

  • India

    • Mathematics, science, medicine

      • “Hindi” numbers brought back to Europe

      • Algebra, Trigonometry, hospitals, etc.

  • Greece

    • Philosophy, esp. Aristotle

    • Greek medicine

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Cultural Importance of Islam Damascus

  • Law, Optics, Medicine, Mathematics

  • Distribution throughout the Muslim world (Dar al-Islam)

  • Converts and Cities

  • Role of Women

  • Atlantic Ocean to Oceania

  • Trade, trade, trade….

  • Introduction and reintroduction of these ideas to medieval Europe

    • Through Spain & Spanish Jews

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Islam DamascusAn Abrahamic Religion

  • Muslims are strict monotheists.

  • They believe in the Judeo- Christian God, which they callAllah.

  • Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur’an, is the word of God.

Peoples of the Book

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Abraham’s Genealogy Damascus






12 Arabian Tribes



12 Tribes of Israel

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The Prophetic Tradition Damascus







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Architecture Damascus

  • The call to prayer by themuezzin in the minaret.

  • Pray in the mosque on Friday.

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Eid Mubarak Damascus

End of the Ramadan holiday.

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The Great Mosque of Mecca Damascus

  • The pilgrimage to Mecca.

  • Must be done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime.

  • 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year.

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The DamascusHajj

  • Those who complete the pilgrimage can add the titlehajji to their name.

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The DamascusDar al-Islam

The Worldof Islam






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The Mosque Damascus

  • The Muslim place of worship.

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The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Damascus

Mount Moriah Rockwhere Muhammad ascended into heaven.

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Islamic influence today Damascus

  • Southwest Asia

  • Balkan Peninsula and Transcaucasia

  • North Africa and Swahili Coast

  • South Asia and Southeast Asia

  • East Asia and Oceania

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The Rise of Islam Damascus

600 C.E. -1200’s C.E.