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Muhammad and the Growth of Islam Lesson 10-3 The Prophet Muhammad Born in Mecca on the Arabian peninsula Raised by relatives after his parents died; became a trader Had a revelation or vision from Allah (God) telling him he would be his prophet

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Muhammad and the Growth of Islam

Lesson 10-3

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The Prophet Muhammad

  • Born in Mecca on the Arabian peninsula

  • Raised by relatives after his parents died; became a trader

  • Had a revelation or vision from Allah (God) telling him he would be his prophet

  • Islam, (“submitting to God’s will”) a religion based on the revelations given to Muhammad grows

  • A Muslim, or follower of Islam, believes that the Qur’an is God’s word and Muhammad is his messenger.

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The Holy Quran

  • Muslims believe the Qur’an is the direct word of Allah revealed to Muhammad

  • The Quran is written and read in Arabic and is about as long as the Christian New Testament.

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Mecca and Medina

  • In 622 Muhammad goes to Medina and sets up the first Muslim community.

  • Muhammad’s journey to Medina is called theHijrah

  • 622 is the start of the Muslim calendar

  • Mecca is a holy city for Muslims all over the world today.

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The Five Pillars of Islam

  • Testimony of FaithThere is no god but God or Allah, and Muhammad is His messenger or prophet.

  • Daily PrayerPray 5x each day in the direction of the holy city of Mecca.

  • Charity Give money to the poor.

  • FastingNo food or drink from dawn until dusk during the holy month of Ramadan - the 9th month of the Muslim calendar.

  • Pilgrimage Travel to the holy city of Mecca at least once during one’s lifetime.

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  • Muslims make a spiritual journey called a pilgrimage (or hajj) to visit the Kaaba in Mecca.

  • According to the Quran, the Kaaba (black cube) was made by Abraham.

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Death of the Prophet

  • Muhammad died in 632 and rose into heaven from a holy rock where Jews believe Abraham prepared the sacrifice of his son, Isaac in Jerusalem. On this site Muslims built a mosque called the Dome of the Rock.


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The Muslim World

  • Major groups of Muslims: Sunnis and Shi’ites

  • Most Muslims are Sunnis (85%)

  • Shi’ites are the majority in Iraq and Iran

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Sunnis vs. Shi’ites

  • Sunnis(85%)

    • The caliph (Muslim leader) may be elected from the Muslim community.

  • Shi’ites (Shia) (15%)

    • The caliph (Muslim leader) must be a descendant of the family of Muhammad

      • This basic belief has caused many disagreements between the Sunnis and Shi’ites for many years.

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A Muslim Mosque

  • Muslims had a strong interest in art.

  • A mosque, or Muslim house of worship is considered a work of art.

  • They are often decorated with geometric designs and verses from the Qur’an.

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Muslim Architecture

The towers of a

mosque are where

the call to prayer

is heard each day.

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Jerusalem – A Holy City

  • Jews, Christians, and Muslims consider Jerusalem a holy city.

    • Abrahamic Tradtion

      • All three groups trace their monotheistic heritage to Abraham.

    • Jews pray at the Western Wall ; the last remaining wall of the ancient Jewish temple.

  • Muslims visit the Dome of the Rock (Site of Muhammad’s journey to heaven and sacrifice of Isaac.

  • Christians visit the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built on the site where Jesus was crucified and buried.

  • Today, Jerusalem is the capital of the nation of Israel.

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The Ottoman Empire

  • In 1453 Muslim Turks, the Ottomans, captured Constantinople ending the Byzantine Empire.

  • The Ottomans then conquered much of the territory held by the Byzantines.

  • The rule of the Ottoman Empire united much of the Muslim world under one ruler.