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Chapter 5. Crime and Violence. Nature of Crime. A crime is an act or omission of an act for which the state can apply a sanction. Criminal Law prohibits certain acts and [prescribes the punishment

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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Crime and Violence


Nature of crime
Nature of Crime

  • A crime is an act or omission of an act for which the state can apply a sanction.

    • Criminal Law prohibits certain acts and [prescribes the punishment

    • Civil law deals with noncriminal acts in which one person injures another; these are mediated by the state.


Nature of crime1
Nature of Crime

Perceptions of Crime and crime rates….

Is there more or less crime in the U.S than there was 5 years a go?


Violent crime rates
Violent Crime Rates

What is problematic about the way we count and present crime statistics?


The nature of crime
The Nature of Crime

Police discretion

Problems of accuracy

Victimization reports


Figure 5 3 crime index offenses figure 5 4 the crime clock
Figure 5-3: Crime Index OffensesFigure 5-4: The Crime Clock


Types of crimes and criminals
Types of Crimes and Criminals

  • Violent Personal Crimes

  • Types of Criminal homicide

    • Murder

    • Manslaughter

  • Mass Murderers and Serial Killers


Figure 5-5: Murder by Relationship; Figure 5-6: Situations Police Officers Were Killed in the Line of Duty


Types of crimes and criminals1
Types of Crimes and Criminals Police Officers Were Killed in the Line of Duty

  • Occasional property crimes

  • Occupational (White-Collar) Crimes

    • Differential association

  • Embezzlement

  • Fraud

    • The Ponzi Scheme

    • Cybercrime

  • Corporate Crimes

  • Deregulation and Lax Enforcement


Types of crimes and criminals2
Types of Crimes and Criminals Police Officers Were Killed in the Line of Duty

  • Public-Order Crimes

  • Organized Crime

    • Organized Crime and Corruption

  • Conventional and Professional Crimes

    • Cybercrime

    • Identity Theft

  • Juvenile Delinquency


Causes of crime violence
Causes of Crime & Violence Police Officers Were Killed in the Line of Duty

Biological Explanations of Crime

Biology, Violence, and Criminality

Gender and Crime

Age and Crime

Sociological Explanations of Crime


Figure 5 10 11 total arrests by sex race and area arrests per 100 000 juveniles ages 10 17
Figure 5-10 & 11: Total Arrests, by Sex, Race, and Area; Arrests per 100,000 Juveniles Ages 10–17


Figure 5 12 13 inequality crime homicide rates in death penalty non death penalty states
Figure 5-12 & 13: Inequality & Crime; Homicide Rates in Death Penalty & Non-Death-Penalty States


Gangs guns violent death causes of crime violence
Gangs, Guns, & Violent Death; Causes of Crime & Violence Death Penalty & Non-Death-Penalty States

  • Conflict Approaches to the Study of Crime

    • Inequality and Crime

  • Cross-Cultural Research

    • Race and Crime; racial Profiling

  • The Functionalist View: Anomie Theory

  • Interactionist Approaches: Differential Association and Delinquent Subcultures


Figure 5 9 death rates from firearms
Figure 5–9 Death Rates from Death Penalty & Non-Death-Penalty StatesFirearms


Controlling crime
Controlling Crime Death Penalty & Non-Death-Penalty States

  • Retribution-Deterrence

  • Rehabilitation

  • Prevention

    • Harm Reduction and Juvenile Diversion

  • Mandatory Sentencing

  • Arrest and Incarceration


Controlling crime1
Controlling Crime Death Penalty & Non-Death-Penalty States

  • The Prison Paradox; Racial Disparities in Sentencing; Alternatives to Incarceration

  • Occupational and Corporate Crimes

  • Organized Crime

  • Public-Order & Juvenile-Justice Reforms

  • Gun Control

  • Future Prospects



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