Chapter 5
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Chapter 5. Elaine Teto. The Mole. the formula mass in grams of a substance contains one mole of particles A mole is also equivalent to Avogadro’s number (6.022 x 1023­.) The formula would be: mole = n = mass (gr) / molar mass (gr/mole).

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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Elaine Teto


The mole
The Mole

  • the formula mass in grams of a substance contains one mole of particles

  • A mole is also equivalent to Avogadro’s number (6.022 x 1023­.)

  • The formula would be: mole = n = mass (gr) / molar mass (gr/mole)



Atomic mass formula weight and molar mass
Atomic mass, formula weight and molar mass anything has Avogadro’s number of objects in it

  • atomic mass unit (amu) is defined by setting the mass of one C atom equal to 12 amu

  • We can determine the amu experimentally to be 1.66 x 10-24 grams.

  • These weights can be derived from the periodic table




Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry can be determined.

  • Stoichiometry is the math behind chemistry.

  • Given enough information, one can use stoichiometry to calculate masses, moles, and percents within a chemical equation.

  • when considering balancing equations one must remember the Law of Conservation of Mass, which states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed


Balancing equations
Balancing Equations can be determined.

  • Example 1: Al + Fe3O4  Al2O3 + Fe

  • When balancing equations it is important to take one atoms at a time and work with each individually. Trying to balance an entire equation at once can be difficult.

  • 8 Al + 3 Fe3O4  4 Al2O3 + 9 Fe

  • Example 2: CH4 + 2O2  CO2 + H2O + Heat

  • CH4 +2O2  CO2 + 2H2O + Heat


Empirical and molecular formulas
Empirical and Molecular formulas can be determined.

  • The molecular formula is the form of the term as it would appear in a chemical equation. The empirical formula and the molecular formula can be the same, or the molecular formula can be any positive integer multiple of the empirical formula.

  • Examples of empirical formulas: AgBr, Na2S, C6H10O5.

  • Examples of molecular formulas: P2, C2O4, C6H14S2, H2, C3H9


  • One can calculate the empirical formula from the masses or percentage composition of any compound.

  • Example: Calculate the empirical formula for a compound that has 43.7 g P (phosphorus) and 56.3 grams of oxygen.

  • First we convert to moles:

  • Next we divide the moles to try to get an even ratio.

  • When we divide, we did not get whole numbers so we must multiply by two (2).

  • The answer=P2O5



  • Example: The empirical formula of a compound is HCN, 2.016 grams of hydrogen are necessary to make the compound, what is the molecular formula?

  • In the empirical formula hydrogen weighs 1.008 grams. Dividing 2.016 by 1.008 we see that the amount of hydrogen needed is twice as much. Therefore the empirical formula needs to be increased by a factor of two (2). The answer is: H2C2N2.


Concentrations of solutions
Concentrations of solutions grams of hydrogen are necessary to make the compound, what is the molecular formula?

  • The concentration of a solution is typically given in molarity. Molarity is defined as the number of moles of solute (what is actually dissolved in the solution) divided by the liters of solution (the total volume of what is dissolved and what it has been dissolved in).


  • Molarity = grams of hydrogen are necessary to make the compound, what is the molecular formula? moles of solute

    liters of solution

  • Example: If 5.00 grams of NaOH are dissolved in 5000 mL of water, what is the molarity of the solution?

  • the molarity (M) of the solution is 0.025 mol/L.



Chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions Molality is defined as moles of solute divided by kilograms of solvent (the substance in which it is dissolved, like water).

  • one of the best solvents is water, because it is a polar molecule

  • Electrolytes are substances whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity

  • When an ionic substance is broken apart into the solvated cations and anions, the process is properly called dissociation. However, when the ions are formed by the reaction of the substance with water, and didn't exist in the original substance, then the process is properly called ionization.


  • Some examples of substances which are classified as strong electrolytes are:

  • * strong inorganic acids (the common ones are: hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, chloric acid, and perchloric acid

  • * strong inorganic bases, e.g. NaOH.

  • Dissociation reaction: NaCl + H2O ---> Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)

  • Ionization Reaction: HCl(g) + H2O(l) ---> H3O+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)



Equations for chemical reactions
equations for chemical reactions are:

  • Molarity equation

    (Molarity) x (Volume [in liters]) = moles of solute

  • Dilution equation

    MCVC = MDVD


Oxidation states
Oxidation states are:

  • Oxidation is the loss of electrons and reduction is the gain of electrons

  • The method used for keeping track of the electrons is the oxidation number.

  • The only time that an oxidation number is a real charge is for monatomic ions, like Cl- (oxidation number -1) or aluminum ion, Al3+ (oxidation number +3). In hydrogen chloride, the oxidation numbers of +1 for the hydrogen and -1 for the chlorine are clearly not real; HCl is a covalent compound which doesn't contain ions.


Conclusion
Conclusion are:

  • Chapter five contained many significant topics in the study of chemistry.

  • It is important to remember that, starting from the simplest form of a concept, such as the mole, and than working toward a more elaborate concept, such as stoichiometry, is the best way to master the topics.


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