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Chapter 5. Accounting for Sales. Learning Objectives. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Recognize revenue items at the proper time on the income statement. Account for cash and credit sales. Record sales returns and allowances, sales discounts, and bank credit card sales.

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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Accounting for Sales

Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Recognize revenue items at the proper time on the income statement.

  • Account for cash and credit sales.

  • Record sales returns and allowances, sales discounts, and bank credit card sales.

  • Manage cash and explain its importance to the company.

Learning objectives1

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Estimate and interpret uncollectible accounts and receivable balances.

  • Assess the level of accounts receivable.

  • Develop and explain internal control procedures.

Recognition of sales revenue

Recognition of Sales Revenue

  • The timing of revenue recognition is critical to the measurement of net income.

    • Revenue is part of the calculation of net income.

      • Net income = Revenue - Expenses

    • Measurement of revenue sometimes determines when a company recognizes certain expenses because of the matching principle.

      • Expenses must be recognized in the same period as the revenues that create the expenses.

Recognition of sales revenue1

Recognition of Sales Revenue

  • Some users of financial information want revenues to be recorded as soon as possible.

  • Others want to be sure that a company will actually receive payment before revenues are recorded.

  • Accountants must carefully assess when revenue should be recognized.

Recognition of sales revenue2

Recognition of Sales Revenue

  • Recognition of revenue requires a two-pronged test:

    • The revenue is earned.

      • Goods or services must be delivered to the customers.

    • The revenue is realized.

      • Cash or other assets must be received.

Recognition of sales revenue3

Recognition of Sales Revenue

  • Most revenues are recognized at the point of sale (when goods are sold and cash changes hands).

    • At this point, both recognition tests are met.

  • Sometimes the tests are not always met at the same time. This results in unearned revenue.

    • Cash is received, but nothing is given in exchange.

Recognition of sales revenue4

Recognition of Sales Revenue

  • What happens if revenue on one “sale” is earned over a long period of time, for example, on a long-term contract?

  • Generally, the revenue from a long-term contract should be recognized as the work on that contract is performed.

    • For example, if one-fourth of the work is completed in the first year, one-fourth of the revenue should be recognized.

Measurement of sales revenue

Measurement of Sales Revenue

  • Revenue is measured in terms of the cash equivalent value of the asset received.

  • Journal entries to record sales:


    Sales revenuexxxx


    Accounts receivablexxxx

    Sales revenuexxxx

Merchandise returns and allowances

Merchandise Returnsand Allowances

  • What happens when sales are recognized at the point of sale and a customer returns the goods that were sold?

  • Sales returns - products returned to the seller by the purchaser for various reasons

    • These are purchase returns from the customer’s perspective.

Merchandise returns and allowances1

Merchandise Returnsand Allowances

  • Sometimes, instead of returning merchandise, the customer demands a reduction, (a sales allowance) in the selling price.

  • Sales allowance - reduction of the original selling price, which is the price previously agreed upon by both parties

    • These are purchase allowances from the customer’s perspective.

Merchandise returns and allowances2

Merchandise Returnsand Allowances

  • Usually, a contra account called Sales Returns and Allowances is used to accumulate both sales returns and sales allowances.

    • By using a contra account, the amount of gross sales is readily available, which allows managers to monitor the level of returns and allowances for various reasons.

    • Using the contra account avoids changing the original sales entry for the amounts returned.

Merchandise returns and allowances3

Merchandise Returnsand Allowances

  • Journal entries for returns and allowances:

    To record the sale:

    Accounts receivable900,000

    Sales revenue900,000

    To record the returns and allowances:

    Sales returns and allowances 80,000

    Accounts receivable 80,000

Merchandise returns and allowances4

Merchandise Returnsand Allowances

  • Gross sales - total sales revenue before deducting sales returns and allowances, if any

  • Net sales - total sales revenue reduced by sales returns and allowances

  • Income statement presentation:

    Gross sales$900,000

    Less: Sales returns and allowances 80,000

    Net sales$820,000


Merchandise returns and allowances5

Merchandise Returnsand Allowances

  • Discounts on sales also affect the amount reported as sales.

  • Two major types of discounts:

    • Trade discounts

    • Cash discounts

Merchandise returns and allowances6

Merchandise Returnsand Allowances

  • Trade discounts - reductions to the gross selling price for a particular class of customers to arrive at the actual selling price (invoice price)

    • Trade discounts are generally price concessions or purchase incentives.

  • The gross sales revenue recognized from a trade discount is the price received after deducting the discount.

Merchandise returns and allowances7

Merchandise Returnsand Allowances

  • Cash discounts - reductions of invoice prices awarded for prompt payment of the invoice

    • Encourage prompt payment and reduce manufacturer’s or seller’s need for cash

    • Reduces the risk of bad debts (nonpayment)

  • Purchasers should always take purchase discounts if possible.

Recording charge card transactions

Recording Charge Card Transactions

  • Cash discounts also occur when retailers accept charge cards.

  • Retailers accept charge cards for three reasons:

    • To attract credit customers who would otherwise shop elsewhere

    • To get cash immediately rather than wait for customers to pay

    • To avoid the cost of keeping track of many customer accounts

Recording charge card transactions1

Recording Charge Card Transactions

  • Retailers deposit the charge slips in the bank (just like cash), but this costs money (usually from 1% to 3% of gross sales).

    • This cost must be included in the calculation of net sales.


      $10,000 of sales where the charge card company charges 3%


      Cash discounts for bank cards 300


Accounting for net sales revenue

Accounting forNet Sales Revenue

  • Cash discounts and sales returns and allowances are recorded as deductions from gross sales.

    Gross sales$20,000


    Sales returns and allowances$200

    Cash discounts on sales 550 750

    Net sales$19,250


Accounting for net sales revenue1

Accounting forNet Sales Revenue

  • The income statement allows different systems for accounting for net sales.

    • The preceding example shows sales, sales returns and allowances, and cash discounts in separate accounts.

    • Net sales can be shown in one account where all sales returns and allowances and cash discounts directly decrease the sales account.

Course 5 accounting for sales


  • Many companies combine cash and cash equivalents on their balance sheets.

    • Cash equivalents - highly liquid short-term investments that can easily and quickly be converted into cash

  • Cash encompasses all items that are accepted for deposit by a bank.

    • Paper money, coins, money orders, and checks

Compensating balances

Compensating Balances

  • Compensating balances - required minimum cash balances on deposit when money is borrowed from banks

    • The size of the compensating balance usually depends on the amount borrowed.

  • Annual reports must disclose the state of any significant compensating balances.

    • Without such a disclosure, readers might think that a company has more cash available than it really does.

Management of cash

Management of Cash

  • Managers spend much time managing cash for several reasons.

    • Although cash balances may be small at any one time, the flow of cash can be enormous.

    • Because cash is the most liquid asset, it is enticing to thieves and embezzlers.

    • Adequate cash is essential to the smooth functioning of operations.

    • Cash itself does not earn income. It is important not to hold excess cash; it should be invested.

Management of cash1

Management of Cash

  • To reconcile a bank statement means to verify that the bank balance for cash is consistent with the accounting records.

    • The accounting balance and the bank balance are rarely the same.

      • Deposits and checks are recorded in the books when made or written.

      • Banks may receive the deposits or process the checks days later.

Management of cash2

Management of Cash

  • Internal control procedures to safeguard cash:

    • The individuals who receive cash do not also disburse cash.

    • The individuals who handle cash cannot access accounting records.

    • Cash receipts are immediately recorded and deposited and are not used directly to make payments.

    • Disbursements are made by serially numbered checks, only with proper authorization by someone other than the person writing the check.

    • Bank accounts are reconciled monthly.

Credit sales and accounts receivable

Credit Sales andAccounts Receivable

  • Accounts receivable - amounts owed to a company by customers as a result of delivering goods or services and extending credit in the ordinary course of business

    • Also known as trade receivables or simply receivables

    • The main benefit of granting credit is a boost in sales and profits that would otherwise be lost if credit were not extended.

Uncollectible accounts

Uncollectible Accounts

  • Uncollectible accounts (bad debts) - receivables determined to be uncollectible because debtors are unable or unwilling to pay their debts

    • Uncollectible accounts are a major cost of granting credit to customers.

    • Accountants call this cost bad debts expense.

    • Extent of nonpayment can vary greatly with size of companies and industries and depend on the credit risk that managers are willing to accept.

Measurement of uncollectible accounts

Measurement ofUncollectible Accounts

  • Two basic ways to record uncollectibles:

    • Specific write-off method - wait to see which receivables will not be paid and write them off at that time

    • Allowance method - make estimates of the portion of accounts receivable that will not be collected

Specific write off method

Specific Write-off Method

  • The specific write-off method assumes that all sales are fully collectible until proved otherwise.

    • This method is used by companies that rarely experience bad debts.

  • When an account is identified as uncollectible, that account is removed from the books and an expense is recorded.

    Bad debts expensexxxx

    Accounts receivablexxxx

Specific write off method1

Specific Write-off Method

  • Disadvantage

    • It fails to apply the matching principle (expenses must be recorded in the same period as the related revenues) if the receivable is written off in a period other than when the receivable is recorded.

  • Advantages

    • It follows the cost-benefit concept because it is simple and extremely inexpensive to use.

    • If amounts of bad debts are small (immaterial), no great error in measurement of income occurs.

Allowance method

Allowance Method

  • The allowance method estimates the amount of uncollectible accounts to be matched to the related revenue.

    • It allows accountants to recognize bad debts during the proper period, before specific uncollectible accounts are identified in a subsequent period.

Allowance method1

Allowance Method

  • The allowance method has two basic elements:

    • An estimate of the amounts that will ultimately be uncollectible

    • A contra account, Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts, which contains the estimate and is deducted from Accounts Receivable

  • The allowance method is based on historical experience and the assumption that the current year is similar to prior years.

Allowance method2

Allowance Method

  • Presentation of Accounts Receivable under the allowance method:

    Accounts receivable $40,000

    Less: Allowance for uncollectible accounts 2,000

    Net accounts receivable $38,000


Applying the allowance method using a percentage of sales

Applying the Allowance Method Using a Percentage of Sales

  • Percentage of sales method - an approach to estimating bad debts expense and uncollectible accounts based on historical relations between credit sales and uncollectibles

    • Bad debts are assumed to be some percentage of sales.

Applying the allowance method using a percentage of sales1

Applying the Allowance Method Using a Percentage of Sales

Echo Company has $150,000 in credit sales. Historically, 2% of credit sales are determined to be uncollectible. During the year, Echo Company determines that $2,000 of receivables will not be collected. What are the entries to record the sales, establish the Allowance account, and write off the uncollectible accounts?

Applying the allowance method using a percentage of sales2

Applying the Allowance Method Using a Percentage of Sales

The entry to record the sales:

Accounts receivable150,000


The entry to record the estimate for bad debts:

Bad debts expense 3,000

Allowance for uncollectible accounts 3,000

The entry to record actual uncollectible accounts:

Allowance for uncollectible accounts 2,000

Accounts receivable 2,000

Applying the allowance method using a percentage of accounts receivable

Applying the Allowance Method Using a Percentage of Accounts Receivable

  • Percentage of accounts receivable method - an approach to estimating bad debts expense and uncollectible accounts at year end using the historical relations of uncollectibles to accounts receivable

Applying the allowance method using a percentage of accounts receivable1

Applying the Allowance Method Using a Percentage of Accounts Receivable

  • The Allowance for Uncollectible accounts is used to estimate the approximate amount of bad debts included in the ending Accounts Receivable.

    • Additions to Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts are calculated to achieve a desired ending balance in the Allowance account.

    • An adjusting journal entry is made to adjust the balance in the Allowance account to the desired balance at the end of the year.

Applying the allowance method using a percentage of accounts receivable2

Applying the Allowance Method Using a Percentage of Accounts Receivable

  • Calculating the allowance under the percentage of receivables method:

    • Divide average bad debts by average ending balance of Accounts Receivable to calculate the historical average uncollectible percentage.

    • Apply the percentage from step 1 to the ending Accounts Receivable balance to determine the desired ending balance in the Allowance account at the end of the year.

    • Prepare an adjusting entry to adjust the Allowance account to the amount determined in step 2.

Applying the allowance method using the aging of accounts receivable

Applying the Allowance Method Using the Aging of Accounts Receivable

  • Aging of accounts receivable method - an analysis that considers the composition of year-end accounts receivable based on the ages of the debts.

    • The more time elapses after the sale, the less likely collection of the receivable becomes.

    • The aging gives a desired balance in the Allowance account just as the percentage of accounts receivable method does; however, the amount desired in the Allowance account will probably be somewhat different.

Applying the allowance method using the aging of accounts receivable1

Applying the Allowance Method Using the Aging of Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable aging schedule:

1-30 days31-90 daysOver 90 daysTotal


receivable $70,000 $30,000 $2,000

Percentage 1% 2% 90%

$ 700 $ 600 $1,800 $3,100

=============== =============== ============= ============

$3,100 is the desired amount in the Allowance account. A journal entry will be made to adjust the Allowance account to that amount.

Bad debt recoveries

Bad Debt Recoveries

  • Sometimes accounts will be collected after they have been written off.

  • When this happens, the write-off should be reversed and the collection handled as a normal receipt on account.

Assessing the level of accounts receivable

Assessing the Level ofAccounts Receivable

  • Management should monitor the ability of the company to control accounts receivable.

    • They often use accounts receivable turnover for measuring that ability.

Assessing the level of accounts receivable1

Assessing the Level ofAccounts Receivable

  • Accounts receivable turnover indicates how rapidly collections of accounts receivable occur.

    • The ratio tells how many times, on average, accounts receivable “turn over” during the year.

    • Higher turnovers indicate that receivables are collected quickly.

    • Lower turnovers indicate that receivables are collected more slowly.

Assessing the level of accounts receivable2

Assessing the Level ofAccounts Receivable

  • Days to accounts receivable (average collection period) - an indication of how long it takes to collect money after a sale is made

Overview of internal control

Overview of Internal Control

  • The purpose of internal control is the creation of a system of checks and balances that assures that all actions occurring within a company are in accord with organizational objectives and have the general approval of top management.

    • At one level, internal control seeks to tie daily decisions to corporate strategy.

    • At another level, internal control refers to the protection of firm assets from theft or loss.

Overview of internal control1

Overview of Internal Control

  • Types of controls:

    • Administrative controls - all methods and procedures that facilitate management planning and control of operations

    • Accounting controls - the methods and procedures for authorizing transactions, safeguarding assets, and ensuring the accuracy of the financial records

Overview of internal control2

Overview of Internal Control

  • Internal accounting controls should provide reasonable assurance concerning:

    • Authorization - Transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific intentions.

    • Recording - All authorized transactions are recorded in the correct amounts, periods, and accounts. No fictitious transactions are recorded.

    • Safeguarding - Precautions and procedures appropriately restrict access to assets.

Overview of internal control3

Overview of Internal Control

  • Internal accounting controls should provide reasonable assurance concerning:

    • Reconciliation - Records are compared with other independently kept records and physical counts.

      • Such comparisons help ensure that other control objectives are attained.

    • Valuation - Recorded amounts are periodically reviewed for impairment of values and necessary write-downs.

Overview of internal control4

Overview of Internal Control

  • The first three objectives, authorizing, recording, and safeguarding, are related to establishing the system of accountability and are aimed at the prevention of errors and irregularities.

  • The fourth and fifth objectives, reconciliation and valuation, are aimed at detecting errors and irregularities.

  • A sixth objective of internal control is to promote operating efficiency.

The accounting system

The Accounting System

  • Accounting system - a set of records, procedures, and equipment that routinely deals with the events affecting the financial performance and position of the entity

    • The focus of the accounting system is on repetitive, voluminous transactions that fall into four categories:

      • Cash disbursements

      • Cash receipts

      • Purchase of goods and services, including payroll

      • Sales or other rendering of goods and services

The accounting system1

The Accounting System

  • Most accounting systems make use of computers and data processing to handle the enormous number of transactions that occur each day.

  • Well-designed and well-run accounting systems are positive contributions to the organization.

Management s responsibility

Management’s Responsibility

  • Although outside auditors attest to the financial reports of an entity, management bears the responsibility for a company’s financial statements.

  • Management reports - explicit statements in annual reports of publicly held companies that management is responsible for all audited and unaudited information in the annual report

The audit committee

The Audit Committee

  • Audit committee - a committee of the board of directors that oversees the internal accounting controls, financial statements, and financial affairs of the corporation

The audit committee1

The Audit Committee

  • The committee provides contact and communication among the board, the external auditors, the internal auditors, the financial executives, and the operating executives.

  • The committee is typically composed of members from “inside” the company (managers) and “outside” the company (nonemployees).

Checklist of internal controls

Checklist of Internal Controls

  • Good internal control systems have certain features in common. The following checklist summarizes the guidancefound in much of the systems and auditing literature.

Checklist of internal controls1

Checklist of Internal Controls

Reliable Personnel with Clear Responsibilities

  • The most important element of successful control is personnel.

    • Bad personnel can undermine the system, no matter how good that system is.

  • Assigning responsibility means tracking actions as far down in the organization as possible so that results can be related to individuals.

    • Have sales clerks sign sales slips.

    • Have workers sign time cards.

    • Many retailers assign each cashier a separate money tray.

Checklist of internal controls2

Checklist of Internal Controls

Separation of Duties

  • Separation of duties means that responsibility for a sequence of related operations should be divided among two or more persons.

    • This separation of duties makes it hard for one person, acting alone, to defraud the company.

  • Examples of separation of duties:

    • One individual should not authorize payment of an invoice and also sign the check to pay that invoice.

    • One individual should not handle cash receipts and post receipts to accounts receivable.

Checklist of internal controls3

Checklist of Internal Controls

Proper Authorization

  • General authorization - usually found in writing - often sets limits on what price to pay, what price to receive, what credit limits to grant to customers, etc.

  • Specific authorization - means that a superior or manager must authorize any particular deviations from the limits set by general authorizations.

  • Examples of proper authorization:

    • A manager may have to approve overtime.

    • A manager may have to approve the return of merchandise.

Checklist of internal controls4

Checklist of Internal Controls

Adequate Documents

  • Immediate, complete, and tamper-proof recording is the aim of adequate documentation, especially for handling cash sales.

  • It is encouraged by:

    • Optical scanning of bar-coded data

    • Having all source documents prenumbered and accounted for

    • Using devices such as cash registers

    • Designing forms for ease of recording

Checklist of internal controls5

Checklist of Internal Controls

Proper Procedures

  • Most organizations use procedures manuals to specify the flow of documents and provide instructions to facilitate adequate record keeping.

    • This basically means doing things “by the book.”

  • Routine and automatic checks are often used.

Checklist of internal controls6

Checklist of Internal Controls

Physical Safeguards

  • Losses can be minimized by using safes, locks, guards, and limited access.

  • Examples of physical safeguards:

    • Require all visitors to sign a register and wear name tags.

    • Doors to research areas or computer facilitiescan be opened only with special keys or by the use of a specific code.

Checklist of internal controls7

Checklist of Internal Controls

Bonding, Vacation, and Rotation of Duties

  • Rotating employees and mandatory vacations ensure that more than one employee knows how to do each job.

    • They also discourage employees from engaging in fraudulent activities that might be discovered when someone else has access to their records.

  • Bonding is like buying insurance against embezzlement, but it is not a substitute for prevention of the loss.

Checklist of internal controls8

Checklist of Internal Controls

Independent Check

  • All phases of the system should be subjected to periodic review by outsiders, such as independent external auditors, and by internal auditors.

    • Independent auditors can spot weaknesses that management might miss during day-to-day operations.

    • Internal auditors are company employees who help design control systems and assess the degree of compliance with the existing systems.

Checklist of internal controls9

Checklist of Internal Controls

Cost-Benefit Analysis

  • Investments in more costly systems must be compared with the expected benefits.

  • No internal control system is perfect in the sense that it can prevent all fraud.

    • The goal of designing an internal control system is to design a cost-effective tool that will help achieve efficient operations and reduce temptation.

Bank reconciliations

Bank Reconciliations

  • Bank reconciliation - the analysis that details the items responsible for the difference between the cash balance reported in the bank statement and the balance of the Cash account in the ledger

    • A bank reconciliation is prepared each month by the depositor to make sure that all cash receipts and disbursements are accounted for by the bank.

Bank reconciliations1

Bank Reconciliations

  • Most bank reconciliations have two sections:

    • Balance per books:

      • Adjustments are made for items not entered in the books but already entered by the bank.

    • Balance per bank:

      • Adjustments are made for items not entered by the bank but already entered in the books.

  • After adjustments, each section should end with identical adjusted cash balances.

Bank reconciliations2

Bank Reconciliations

  • Basic form of a bank reconciliation:

    Balance per books

    Add: Amounts collected by the bank on behalf of the depositor

    Deduct: Bank service charges

    Checks returned for insufficient funds from customers

    Adjusted balance per books

    Balance per bank

    Add: Deposits not recorded by the bank

    Deduct: Outstanding checks

    Adjusted balance per bank

Introduction to financial accounting 8th edition powerpoint presentation

Introduction to Financial Accounting8th EditionPowerPoint Presentation

Developed by:

Eddie Metrejean, MTAX, CPA

University of Mississippi

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