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Outline. What is cancer? How do people know they have cancer? How do tumors develop and cancer spread? Why are older people more likely to get cancer? What regulations do cells have that help prevent cancer? What are some of the causes of cancer?

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Outline

Outline

  • What is cancer? How do people know they have cancer?

  • How do tumors develop and cancer spread?

  • Why are older people more likely to get cancer?

  • What regulations do cells have that help prevent cancer?

  • What are some of the causes of cancer?

  • How can one’s environment affect their chances of getting cancer?

  • How Can Chemicals Cause Cancer?

  • How can viruses cause cancer?

  • Why does one family have a history of cancer?

  • What can you and your body do to help prevent getting cancer?

  • What can you eat to help prevent you from getting cancer? Why do these foods help?

  • How can my body fight cancer?

  • How common is cancer?

  • What are some of the common treatments for cancer and how do they work?


What is cancer

What is cancer?

How do people find out if they have cancer?


Cancer simplified

Cancer Simplified

Cells that have gone awry, because the genes that help cells “follow the rules” have mutated. Thus they can divide rapidly, start acting like other cells and move from where they are supposed to stay.


How do tumors develop and cancer spread

How do tumors develop and cancer spread?

http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/SupplementsCorrections.nsf/Movies/Cancer_Movies.htm


Differences between normal and cancerous cell

Differences between normal and cancerous cell


Why are older people more likely to get cancer

Why are older people more likely to get cancer?

Cancer develops step-by-step, across time, as an accumulation of many molecular changes, each contributing some of the characteristics that eventually produce cancer cells.


What regulations do cells have that help prevent cancer

What regulations do cells have that help prevent Cancer?


Cell cycle

Cell Cycle


Can anyone think of an analogy for the cell cycle

Can anyone think of an Analogy for the Cell Cycle?


Cells maintain strict control over cell division

Cells maintain strict control over Cell Division

We have genes in our DNA called tumor suppressor genes that code for proteins that interact with the molecules cyclin and CDK which are controlling the cell cycle at certain checkpoints to determine if the DNA is good enough shape to proceed to division. If the DNA is damaged in anyway it is either repaired or the cell undergoes programmed cell death.


Dna can only replicate once with each cell divison

DNA can only replicate once with each cell divison.

A cell with to much DNA material does not behave correctly so DNA must only replicate once with each cycle and each daughter cell must have the correct amount of genetic material.


Dna damage must be repaired before replication

DNA Damage must be repaired before replication.

To prevent a cell from having the ability to become cancerous, damage must be repaired.


If a cell fails to pass a checkpoint

If a cell fails to pass a checkpoint…

It will undergo programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. This prevents damaged cells from dividing and leading to cancerous cells.


Class demo

Class Demo


What are some causes of cancer

What are some causes of cancer?

environment (ex: sun), chemicals, infection, genes, toxins etc.


Cancer has multiple causes

Cancer has multiple causes

-mutated tumor suppressor genes

-mutated cell cycle regulators

-mutated repair proteins

-mutated receptor signaling constant division, etc.


Outline

How can one’s environment affect their chances of getting cancer?Example: UVA and UVB light exposureBy damaging the skin’s cellular DNA, excessive UV radiation produces genetic mutations that can lead to skin cancer.


How can chemicals cause cancer

How Can Chemicals Cause Cancer?


By causing dna damage

By causing DNA Damage

  • Chemicals can cause mutations in DNA such as missense and nonsense.

  • They can cause the bases to stick together in a process called dimerization.

  • Various chemical modifications.

  • Cancer causing chemicals are known as carcinogens.


How can viruses cause cancer

How can viruses cause cancer?


Think about it

Think about it!

Viruses insert their own DNA into our cells so our cells will make more viruses. The viral genes that cause cancer activate or over express similar human genes that cause the cells to exhibit uncontrolled cell divison.


Cell communication gone awry

Cell communication gone awry

One way viruses have been found to cause cancer is through mutated receptors on the cell surface. What might the receptor be for?


Why does one family have a history of cancer

Why does one family have a history of cancer?

Heredity-This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism.


Xeroderma pigmentosum

Xeroderma pigmentosum

Autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in genes that code for DNA repair proteins


Retinoblastoma and rb1

Retinoblastoma and RB1

Retinoblastoma is a form of cancer that young children usually get because of one mutated copy of a protein called RB1. What must happen for retinoblastoma to occur?


Remember we have two copies of a gene

Remember we have two copies of a gene.


Outline

With only one good copy of the gene, all it takes is one hit on that gene for the stage to be set for retinoblastoma to occur.


Game time

Game Time!

Game


What can you and your body do to help prevent getting cancer

What can you and your body do to help prevent getting cancer?


Don t smoke

Don’t Smoke!


What can i eat to help prevent me from getting cancer

What can I eat to help prevent me from getting cancer?


Why do these foods help prevent cancer

Why do these foods help prevent cancer?

ANTIOXIDANTS

Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals can damage cells, and may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases.


How can my body fight cancer

How can my body fight cancer?

The Immune System


The immune system

The Immune System


The immune system1

The Immune System


The immune system2

The Immune System


Statistics how common is cancer

StatisticsHow common is cancer?

  • Approximately 6 of 10 people in will have children

    • 2,3,5,6 stand

  • Approximately 3 in 10 of the people in the room will be involved in an alcohol-related automobile accident sometime in their lifetimes.

    • 3 and 6 stand

  • Approximately 1 in 3 (or in this case, 2 in 6) of the people in the room will develop cancer sometime during their lifetimes.

    • 1 and 4 stand

  • Approximately 25 % of the U.S. population who will die of cancer.

    • ¼ of people standing should sit


What are some of the common treatments for cancer

What are some of the common treatments for cancer?


How does biological therapy work

How does biological therapy work?

It uses the body's immune system, either directly or indirectly, to fight cancer or to lessen the side effects that may be caused by some cancer treatments.


How does surgery help

How does surgery help?

Surgery may be used for cancer prevention to remove tissue before cancer develops, diagnosis to determine if tumor is cancerous or not, staging to see how advanced the cancer is, and primary treatment to remove cancerous tumors.


How does chemotherapy work

How does chemotherapy work?

It uses drugs to destroy cancer cells, stop cancer cells from spreading, and slow the growth of cancer cells. It can be given through an IV, a shot into part of the body, a pill or liquid to swallow, or a cream to rub on skin.


How does radiation work

How does radiation work?

It uses high powered x-rays or radioactive seeds to damage the DNA and kill cancer cells. Other rapidly growing cells may also be damaged in the process.


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