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Outline. What is cancer? How do people know they have cancer? How do tumors develop and cancer spread? Why are older people more likely to get cancer? What regulations do cells have that help prevent cancer? What are some of the causes of cancer?

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Outline
Outline

  • What is cancer? How do people know they have cancer?

  • How do tumors develop and cancer spread?

  • Why are older people more likely to get cancer?

  • What regulations do cells have that help prevent cancer?

  • What are some of the causes of cancer?

  • How can one’s environment affect their chances of getting cancer?

  • How Can Chemicals Cause Cancer?

  • How can viruses cause cancer?

  • Why does one family have a history of cancer?

  • What can you and your body do to help prevent getting cancer?

  • What can you eat to help prevent you from getting cancer? Why do these foods help?

  • How can my body fight cancer?

  • How common is cancer?

  • What are some of the common treatments for cancer and how do they work?


What is cancer
What is cancer?

How do people find out if they have cancer?


Cancer simplified
Cancer Simplified

Cells that have gone awry, because the genes that help cells “follow the rules” have mutated. Thus they can divide rapidly, start acting like other cells and move from where they are supposed to stay.


How do tumors develop and cancer spread
How do tumors develop and cancer spread?

http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/SupplementsCorrections.nsf/Movies/Cancer_Movies.htm



Why are older people more likely to get cancer
Why are older people more likely to get cancer?

Cancer develops step-by-step, across time, as an accumulation of many molecular changes, each contributing some of the characteristics that eventually produce cancer cells.





Cells maintain strict control over cell division
Cells maintain strict control over Cell Division

We have genes in our DNA called tumor suppressor genes that code for proteins that interact with the molecules cyclin and CDK which are controlling the cell cycle at certain checkpoints to determine if the DNA is good enough shape to proceed to division. If the DNA is damaged in anyway it is either repaired or the cell undergoes programmed cell death.


Dna can only replicate once with each cell divison
DNA can only replicate once with each cell divison.

A cell with to much DNA material does not behave correctly so DNA must only replicate once with each cycle and each daughter cell must have the correct amount of genetic material.


Dna damage must be repaired before replication
DNA Damage must be repaired before replication.

To prevent a cell from having the ability to become cancerous, damage must be repaired.


If a cell fails to pass a checkpoint
If a cell fails to pass a checkpoint…

It will undergo programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. This prevents damaged cells from dividing and leading to cancerous cells.



What are some causes of cancer
What are some causes of cancer?

environment (ex: sun), chemicals, infection, genes, toxins etc.


Cancer has multiple causes

Cancer has multiple causes

-mutated tumor suppressor genes

-mutated cell cycle regulators

-mutated repair proteins

-mutated receptor signaling constant division, etc.


How can one’s environment affect their chances of getting cancer?Example: UVA and UVB light exposureBy damaging the skin’s cellular DNA, excessive UV radiation produces genetic mutations that can lead to skin cancer.



By causing dna damage
By causing DNA Damage cancer?

  • Chemicals can cause mutations in DNA such as missense and nonsense.

  • They can cause the bases to stick together in a process called dimerization.

  • Various chemical modifications.

  • Cancer causing chemicals are known as carcinogens.



Think about it
Think about it! cancer?

Viruses insert their own DNA into our cells so our cells will make more viruses. The viral genes that cause cancer activate or over express similar human genes that cause the cells to exhibit uncontrolled cell divison.


Cell communication gone awry
Cell communication gone awry cancer?

One way viruses have been found to cause cancer is through mutated receptors on the cell surface. What might the receptor be for?


Why does one family have a history of cancer
Why does one family have a history of cancer? cancer?

Heredity-This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism.


Xeroderma pigmentosum
Xeroderma pigmentosum cancer?

Autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in genes that code for DNA repair proteins


Retinoblastoma and rb1
Retinoblastoma and RB1 cancer?

Retinoblastoma is a form of cancer that young children usually get because of one mutated copy of a protein called RB1. What must happen for retinoblastoma to occur?



With only one good copy of the gene, all it takes is one hit on that gene for the stage to be set for retinoblastoma to occur.


Game time

Game Time! on that gene for the stage to be set for retinoblastoma to occur.

Game





Why do these foods help prevent cancer
Why do these foods help prevent cancer? cancer?

ANTIOXIDANTS

Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals can damage cells, and may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases.


How can my body fight cancer
How can my body fight cancer? cancer?

The Immune System





Statistics how common is cancer
Statistics cancer?How common is cancer?

  • Approximately 6 of 10 people in will have children

    • 2,3,5,6 stand

  • Approximately 3 in 10 of the people in the room will be involved in an alcohol-related automobile accident sometime in their lifetimes.

    • 3 and 6 stand

  • Approximately 1 in 3 (or in this case, 2 in 6) of the people in the room will develop cancer sometime during their lifetimes.

    • 1 and 4 stand

  • Approximately 25 % of the U.S. population who will die of cancer.

    • ¼ of people standing should sit



How does biological therapy work
How does biological therapy work? cancer?

It uses the body's immune system, either directly or indirectly, to fight cancer or to lessen the side effects that may be caused by some cancer treatments.


How does surgery help
How does surgery help? cancer?

Surgery may be used for cancer prevention to remove tissue before cancer develops, diagnosis to determine if tumor is cancerous or not, staging to see how advanced the cancer is, and primary treatment to remove cancerous tumors.


How does chemotherapy work
How does chemotherapy work? cancer?

It uses drugs to destroy cancer cells, stop cancer cells from spreading, and slow the growth of cancer cells. It can be given through an IV, a shot into part of the body, a pill or liquid to swallow, or a cream to rub on skin.


How does radiation work
How does radiation work? cancer?

It uses high powered x-rays or radioactive seeds to damage the DNA and kill cancer cells. Other rapidly growing cells may also be damaged in the process.


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