APPROACH  LANDING AIDS 2

APPROACH LANDING AIDS 2 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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2. Review. . Pilot Controlled Lighting Systems

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APPROACH LANDING AIDS 2

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1. 1 APPROACH & LANDING AIDS 2 Airport Markings and SMGCS Classroom setup: OH Projector, AMASS and Surface Movement Video’s cued. ALA 2 will cover airfield markings and the Surface Movement Guidance and Control System. This lecture is intended to re-familiarize the course with the markings and signs that assist us in operating on the airfield in low vis conditions. There have been a few high profile accidents where aircraft have collided on the ground. These include: 747’s at Tenerife 727 and DC9 from Northwest 737 and commuter in LAX. June 2000, Sub-committee on Runway Incursions made recommendations in TP13795 aimed at reducing the number of runway incursions in Canada. Aug 2000, FAA released their plan to target and reduce runway incursion incidents in the US; involves improved markings and education. Current as of 24 Apr 01Classroom setup: OH Projector, AMASS and Surface Movement Video’s cued. ALA 2 will cover airfield markings and the Surface Movement Guidance and Control System. This lecture is intended to re-familiarize the course with the markings and signs that assist us in operating on the airfield in low vis conditions. There have been a few high profile accidents where aircraft have collided on the ground. These include: 747’s at Tenerife 727 and DC9 from Northwest 737 and commuter in LAX. June 2000, Sub-committee on Runway Incursions made recommendations in TP13795 aimed at reducing the number of runway incursions in Canada. Aug 2000, FAA released their plan to target and reduce runway incursion incidents in the US; involves improved markings and education. Current as of 24 Apr 01

2. 2 Review Review: Pilot Controlled Lighting systems – rule of thumb: keying mike 7 times will always work for you even though there are different systems in use. Three bar vasis – what defines which two bars to use, upwind or downwind bars? Eye to wheel height greater than 25 feet, use upwind bars. Review: Pilot Controlled Lighting systems – rule of thumb: keying mike 7 times will always work for you even though there are different systems in use. Three bar vasis – what defines which two bars to use, upwind or downwind bars? Eye to wheel height greater than 25 feet, use upwind bars.

3. 3 Review Review: Pilot Controlled Lighting systems – rule of thumb: keying mike 7 times will always work for you even though there are different systems in use. Three bar vasis – what defines which two bars to use, upwind or downwind bars? Eye to wheel height greater than 25 feet, use downwind bars. Review: Pilot Controlled Lighting systems – rule of thumb: keying mike 7 times will always work for you even though there are different systems in use. Three bar vasis – what defines which two bars to use, upwind or downwind bars? Eye to wheel height greater than 25 feet, use downwind bars.

4. 4 APPROACH & LANDING AIDS 2 Airport Markings and SMGCS Classroom setup: OH Projector, AMASS and Surface Movement Video’s cued. ALA 2 will cover airfield markings and the Surface Movement Guidance and Control System. This lecture is intended to re-familiarize the course with the markings and signs that assist us in operating on the airfield in low vis conditions. There have been a few high profile accidents where aircraft have collided on the ground. These include: 747’s at Tenerife 727 and DC9 from Northwest 737 and commuter in LAX. June 2000, Sub-committee on Runway Incursions made recommendations in TP13795 aimed at reducing the number of runway incursions in Canada. Aug 2000, FAA released their plan to target and reduce runway incursion incidents in the US; involves improved markings and education. Current as of 24 Apr 01Classroom setup: OH Projector, AMASS and Surface Movement Video’s cued. ALA 2 will cover airfield markings and the Surface Movement Guidance and Control System. This lecture is intended to re-familiarize the course with the markings and signs that assist us in operating on the airfield in low vis conditions. There have been a few high profile accidents where aircraft have collided on the ground. These include: 747’s at Tenerife 727 and DC9 from Northwest 737 and commuter in LAX. June 2000, Sub-committee on Runway Incursions made recommendations in TP13795 aimed at reducing the number of runway incursions in Canada. Aug 2000, FAA released their plan to target and reduce runway incursion incidents in the US; involves improved markings and education. Current as of 24 Apr 01

5. 5 Runway Incursions in Canada Classroom setup: OH Projector, AMASS and Surface Movement Video’s cued. ALA 2 will cover airfield markings and the Surface Movement Guidance and Control System. This lecture is intended to re-familiarize the course with the markings and signs that assist us in operating on the airfield in low vis conditions. There have been a few high profile accidents where aircraft have collided on the ground. These include: 747’s at Tenerife 727 and DC9 from Northwest 737 and commuter in LAX. June 2000, Sub-committee on Runway Incursions made recommendations in TP13795 aimed at reducing the number of runway incursions in Canada. Aug 2000, FAA released their plan to target and reduce runway incursion incidents in the US; involves improved markings and education. Current as of 24 Apr 01 Classroom setup: OH Projector, AMASS and Surface Movement Video’s cued. ALA 2 will cover airfield markings and the Surface Movement Guidance and Control System. This lecture is intended to re-familiarize the course with the markings and signs that assist us in operating on the airfield in low vis conditions. There have been a few high profile accidents where aircraft have collided on the ground. These include: 747’s at Tenerife 727 and DC9 from Northwest 737 and commuter in LAX. June 2000, Sub-committee on Runway Incursions made recommendations in TP13795 aimed at reducing the number of runway incursions in Canada. Aug 2000, FAA released their plan to target and reduce runway incursion incidents in the US; involves improved markings and education. Current as of 24 Apr 01

6. 6 Actual Runway Incursions Due to a lack of data from TC, statistics for year 2000 and 2001 were unavailable when this slide was produced.Due to a lack of data from TC, statistics for year 2000 and 2001 were unavailable when this slide was produced.

7. 7 Incursion Potential Two Runway Ops Ref: TP 13795 June 2000 Subcommittee on Runway Incursions Obviously, as traffic volume and complexity of runway operations increase, so does the risk of runway incursions. What can we do to reduce this risk? That’s why we cover Airport Markings and SMGCS in ALA 2.Ref: TP 13795 June 2000 Subcommittee on Runway Incursions Obviously, as traffic volume and complexity of runway operations increase, so does the risk of runway incursions. What can we do to reduce this risk? That’s why we cover Airport Markings and SMGCS in ALA 2.

8. 8 ALA 2 OVERVIEW Runway and Taxiway Markings Runway Status Lights Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) These are the topics that will be covered.These are the topics that will be covered.

9. 9 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY MARKINGS This section will cover various markings. The markings provide contrast and info important during the transition from IMC to VMC.This section will cover various markings. The markings provide contrast and info important during the transition from IMC to VMC.

10. 10 RUNWAY MARKINGS Non-instrument Runway Instrument Runway Displaced Threshold Pre-Threshold Arrester Gear Topics that will be covered.Topics that will be covered.

11. 11 NON - INSTRUMENT RUNWAY MARKINGS Non instrument runway (top) over 5000 feet in length. Instrument runway (b) over 5000 feet in length. Review the markings found on these types of runways. The important item to point out is the complexity of the markings provided increases as the expected landing minimums decreases to provide more cues and contrast to a pilot trying to land in low vis conditions. This ties in with lighting which does the same. The number of bars in the Threshold Markings has significance: 4 Bars indicates a 60” wide runway. 6 = 75 8 = 100 12 = 150 16 = 200Non instrument runway (top) over 5000 feet in length. Instrument runway (b) over 5000 feet in length. Review the markings found on these types of runways. The important item to point out is the complexity of the markings provided increases as the expected landing minimums decreases to provide more cues and contrast to a pilot trying to land in low vis conditions. This ties in with lighting which does the same. The number of bars in the Threshold Markings has significance: 4 Bars indicates a 60” wide runway. 6 = 75 8 = 100 12 = 150 16 = 200

12. 12 PRE-THRESHOLD MARKINGS Question: What ops are allowed in a pre-threshold area? None. Question: What is it there for? While it is a pre-threshold area, it is also a stopway. Ref: AGA 3-2 para 3.6Question: What ops are allowed in a pre-threshold area? None. Question: What is it there for? While it is a pre-threshold area, it is also a stopway. Ref: AGA 3-2 para 3.6

13. 13 Stopway Question: What ops are allowed in a pre-threshold area? None. Question: What is it there for? While it is a pre-threshold area, it is also a stopway. Ref: AGA 3-2 para 3.6Question: What ops are allowed in a pre-threshold area? None. Question: What is it there for? While it is a pre-threshold area, it is also a stopway. Ref: AGA 3-2 para 3.6

14. 14 Point out that the stopway may not support all aircraft and in fact may be designed to allow heavier aircraft to sink which would slow them down.Point out that the stopway may not support all aircraft and in fact may be designed to allow heavier aircraft to sink which would slow them down.

15. 15 DISPLACED THRESHOLD MARKINGS Ask a course member what ops are authorized in a displaced threshold. Taxi and Takeoff, but usually not landing. Read them the AIP ref dealing with displaced thresholds and AGA 3.3.1. This seems to indicate that you can land if you can identify the the obstacle causing the displacement. A good example is the Air Canada hangar here in WPG which is the reason for the displacement on RWY 07. The best policy is to consider the displaced portion not available for landing. A displaced threshold is a Runway that has been shortened for some reason.Ask a course member what ops are authorized in a displaced threshold. Taxi and Takeoff, but usually not landing. Read them the AIP ref dealing with displaced thresholds and AGA 3.3.1. This seems to indicate that you can land if you can identify the the obstacle causing the displacement. A good example is the Air Canada hangar here in WPG which is the reason for the displacement on RWY 07. The best policy is to consider the displaced portion not available for landing. A displaced threshold is a Runway that has been shortened for some reason.

16. 16 TORA -Take Off Run Available Have a course member give you their definition of LDA.Have a course member give you their definition of LDA.

17. 17 TODA - Take Off Distance Available Have a course member give you their definition of LDA.Have a course member give you their definition of LDA.

18. 18 ASDA – Accelerate Stop Distance Available Have a course member give you their definition of LDA.Have a course member give you their definition of LDA.

19. 19 LDA - Landing Distance Available Question: Where can we find this information? GPH 200 Ref: AIP AGA 3.8 (d) OHP: Winnipeg Aerodrome Chart. Teaching Points: -Differences in LDA for 07-25 -Differences in LDA for night and day ops.Question: Where can we find this information? GPH 200 Ref: AIP AGA 3.8 (d) OHP: Winnipeg Aerodrome Chart. Teaching Points: -Differences in LDA for 07-25 -Differences in LDA for night and day ops.

20. 20 Winnipeg Aerodrome Chart

21. 21 ARRESTER GEAR MARKINGS Ask a fighter type what the markings are. The importance of these markings can be significant for low slung aircraft like the Tutor with tanks and the Herc. A loose cable can recoil and rip off aircraft bits.Ask a fighter type what the markings are. The importance of these markings can be significant for low slung aircraft like the Tutor with tanks and the Herc. A loose cable can recoil and rip off aircraft bits.

22. 22 Show the yellow donuts that indicate where the cable lies.Show the yellow donuts that indicate where the cable lies.

23. 23 TAXIWAY MARKINGS Taxiway Guidance Signs Taxiway Non-Instrument Hold Line Taxiway Instrument Hold Line Taxiway ILS Critical Area Hold Line Topics that will be covered.Topics that will be covered.

24. 24 TAXIWAY GUIDANCE SIGNS Have a course member tell what this sign means. We are on Alpha (black outline) and Echo crosses our route at 90 degrees. These signs are the ICAO standard.Have a course member tell what this sign means. We are on Alpha (black outline) and Echo crosses our route at 90 degrees. These signs are the ICAO standard.

25. 25 TAXIWAY GUIDANCE SIGNS This shows the layout indicated by the sign.This shows the layout indicated by the sign.

26. 26 TAXIWAY GUIDANCE SIGNS Have a course member tell what this sign means. We are on Alpha (black outline) and Echo crosses our route at 90 degrees and Foxtrot and Tango taxiways move at 45 degrees.Have a course member tell what this sign means. We are on Alpha (black outline) and Echo crosses our route at 90 degrees and Foxtrot and Tango taxiways move at 45 degrees.

27. 27 TAXIWAY GUIDANCE SIGNS This shows the layout indicated by the sign. Find NW 727/DC9 VideoThis shows the layout indicated by the sign. Find NW 727/DC9 Video

28. 28 INSTRUMENT RUNWAY HOLD LINE This is what it looks like. Scenario – you’re taxiing around in the fog, told to stay clear of all runways and you see this. Which side should you be on??? A good way to remember is you can’t cross a solid line, and that’s what you’d see first if taxiing toward a runway. You can cross a broken line, and that’s what you see first if taxiing clear of a runway. This is what it looks like. Scenario – you’re taxiing around in the fog, told to stay clear of all runways and you see this. Which side should you be on??? A good way to remember is you can’t cross a solid line, and that’s what you’d see first if taxiing toward a runway. You can cross a broken line, and that’s what you see first if taxiing clear of a runway.

29. 29 INSTRUMENT RUNWAY HOLD LINE This is what it looks like. Scenario – you’re taxiing around in the fog, told to stay clear of all runways and you see this. Which side should you be on??? A good way to remember is you can’t cross a solid line, and that’s what you’d see first if taxiing toward a runway. You can cross a broken line, and that’s what you see first if taxiing clear of a runway. This is what it looks like. Scenario – you’re taxiing around in the fog, told to stay clear of all runways and you see this. Which side should you be on??? A good way to remember is you can’t cross a solid line, and that’s what you’d see first if taxiing toward a runway. You can cross a broken line, and that’s what you see first if taxiing clear of a runway.

30. 30 NON-INSTRUMENT RUNWAY HOLD LINE This is what it looks like.This is what it looks like.

31. 31 ILS CRITICAL AREA HOLD LINE This sign is important when the weather is down because if you taxi too close you may cause interference with the ILS signals. The FAA will state on the ATIS when this sign is in effect.This sign is important when the weather is down because if you taxi too close you may cause interference with the ILS signals. The FAA will state on the ATIS when this sign is in effect.

32. 32 ILS CRITICAL AREA HOLD LINE Aircraft proceeding beyond this point may cause interference with ILS signal. Localizer is particularly sensitive due to it’s larger signal volume on the aerodrome area. Ref: AIP Com 3-8 Aircraft proceeding beyond this point may cause interference with ILS signal. Localizer is particularly sensitive due to it’s larger signal volume on the aerodrome area. Ref: AIP Com 3-8

33. 33 RWSL is a radar-based safety system to prevent runway incursions and/or high-hazard situations involving the runway. RWSL is comprised of a set of automatically controlled runway status lights designed to improve situational awareness of the runways' status by informing pilots and ground vehicle operators when a runway is unsafe to enter/cross or to begin takeoff. RWSL is a radar-based safety system to prevent runway incursions and/or high-hazard situations involving the runway. RWSL is comprised of a set of automatically controlled runway status lights designed to improve situational awareness of the runways' status by informing pilots and ground vehicle operators when a runway is unsafe to enter/cross or to begin takeoff.

34. 34 Runway Status Lights The lights advise pilots that a runway is "HOT" or "DIRTY". The lights reinforce controller commands. The lights act as a safety backup for the controller. RWSL are integrated with a surveillance sensor. The same information is provided on the controller display. The pilot and controller share the responsibility of preventing incursions. The operation of the lights is fully automatic. The same information is provided on the controller display. The pilot and controller share the responsibility of preventing incursions. The operation of the lights is fully automatic.

35. 35 Runway Status Lights

36. 36 Runway Entrance Lights (RELs), as shown above, are RED to indicate when it is unsafe to proceed. Runway Entrance Lights (RELs), as shown above, are RED to indicate when it is unsafe to proceed.

37. 37 Takeoff Hold Lights Takeoff Hold Lights (THLs) are RED when it is unsafe to depart the runway because the runway ahead is "dirty". Takeoff Hold Lights (THLs) are RED when it is unsafe to depart the runway because the runway ahead is "dirty".

38. 38 Similarly, when surveillance data indicate that the runway ahead of an aircraft in position for takeoff is either occupied, or shortly will be occupied, the THLs at that takeoff position are illuminated. Similarly, when surveillance data indicate that the runway ahead of an aircraft in position for takeoff is either occupied, or shortly will be occupied, the THLs at that takeoff position are illuminated.

39. 39 B 767 approach Zurich Switzerland RVR 175 Meters CAT III full autoland by a B767 landing in Zurich Switzerland rwy 14. Vis reported as 175m. This a a good example of what technology and automation can do for you. Following the RAD alt calls the reply of “Land 3” refers to the status of all three autopilots used in an autoland sequence. This approach is done with both heads in the cockpit monitoring the autopilots and the flight instruments until touchdown. So if you are doing this approach terms like MDA, DH, etc might not apply….but for the rest of us they do. Show video.CAT III full autoland by a B767 landing in Zurich Switzerland rwy 14. Vis reported as 175m. This a a good example of what technology and automation can do for you. Following the RAD alt calls the reply of “Land 3” refers to the status of all three autopilots used in an autoland sequence. This approach is done with both heads in the cockpit monitoring the autopilots and the flight instruments until touchdown. So if you are doing this approach terms like MDA, DH, etc might not apply….but for the rest of us they do. Show video.

40. 40 SURFACE MOVEMENT GUIDANCE AND CONTROL SYSTEM (SMGCS) FAA SMGCS Handout This section will cover SMGCS. This system is in place at a number of high density airports to minimize runway incursions. Show class the current list. FAA SMGCS Handout This section will cover SMGCS. This system is in place at a number of high density airports to minimize runway incursions. Show class the current list.

41. 41 SMGCS (Surface Movement Guidance and Control System) Description Lighting and Markings Procedures Topics that will be covered.Topics that will be covered.

42. 42 DESCRIPTION Low Visibility Taxi Plan: Taxi Chart Low Visibility Procedures Chart Lighting and Markings Airport Surface Detection Equipment SMGCS is a low visibility taxi plan designed to assist ground movement in very low visibility conditions. It consists of: 1. Taxi Chart: The taxi plan is then charted on the taxi chart. 2. Low Vis Procedures Chart: This chart tells aircrew what procedures are to be followed when operating ion low vis conditions. 3. Lighting and Marking: These must be installed to assist pilots in taxiing in low vis. 4. Ground radar is used to monitor aircraft movement. ATC may suspend low vis ops if this radar is out of service. SMGCS is a low visibility taxi plan designed to assist ground movement in very low visibility conditions. It consists of: 1. Taxi Chart: The taxi plan is then charted on the taxi chart. 2. Low Vis Procedures Chart: This chart tells aircrew what procedures are to be followed when operating ion low vis conditions. 3. Lighting and Marking: These must be installed to assist pilots in taxiing in low vis. 4. Ground radar is used to monitor aircraft movement. ATC may suspend low vis ops if this radar is out of service.

43. 43 LIGHTING/MARKINGS Show video clip Aircraft Surface Movement (wigwags, stop bar and lighted taxiway (2 Min). Go thru the various components of the lighting and markings for Surface Movement and Guidance Control System. Point out handouts in course package. Teaching point: Never cross an illuminated Stop Bar! Show video clip Aircraft Surface Movement (wigwags, stop bar and lighted taxiway (2 Min). Go thru the various components of the lighting and markings for Surface Movement and Guidance Control System. Point out handouts in course package. Teaching point: Never cross an illuminated Stop Bar!

44. 44 This slide shows how the system is laid out at an airfield. Review the major components.This slide shows how the system is laid out at an airfield. Review the major components.

45. 45 PROCEDURES “Low Visibility Procedures in Effect” Low Vis Taxi Chart and Procedures pages in FLIPs. Low Vis Routes and Stop Bars

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