Sentence structure and phrase structure
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Sentence structure and phrase structure. aim. How do we define sentences and clauses ? What are subjects and predicates ? What is a phrase ? What types of phrases are there in Turkish ? What are phrase structure rules ? How are the following types of phrases organised ? NP PP

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Sentence structure and phrase structure

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Sentence structure and phrase structure

Sentencestructureandphrasestructure


Sentence structure and phrase structure

aim

  • How do we define sentencesandclauses?

  • Whataresubjectsandpredicates?

  • What is a phrase?

  • Whattypes of phrasesarethere in Turkish?

  • Whatarephrasestructurerules?

  • How arethefollowingtypes of phrasesorganised?

    • NP

    • PP

    • AP

    • ADVP andadverbials

    • VP


Sentences and clauses

Sentencesandclauses


Sentence structure and phrase structure

  • Intraditionalgrammar,

    Sentence is thecompleteexpression of onethought.

    BUT

    Kaya parçası = onethought, not a sentence

    Dün seninle sinemaya gitmek için geldim = onesentence, twothoughts

    THEN

    Considersentences in terms of clauses.

    Clausesarethesyntacticunitsthathave a subjectand a predicate.

    Sentence= oneormoreclausesduetotheirrecursiveproperties.

    Seni görmeye geldim = sentencewithtwoclauses


Immediate constituents of clauses subjects and predicates

Immediateconstituents of clauses: subjectsandpredicates

  • [Ahmet] [sessizce uyudu]

  • [semra] [açık havada dolaştı]

  • [sarı saçlı kız] [okulu bitirdi]


Substitution test for consistency kim ne yapt

Substitution test forconsistencykim ne yaptı?

  • Constituent B is thesubject of thesentence

  • ConstituentC is thepredicateof thesentence

  • Predication: therelationshipbetweenthesubjectandthepredicate

  • Allsentencesconsist of a subjectand a predicate

  • A predicate is whatremains in a sentenceafterthesubject is excluded.

  • Subjectsandpredicatesarealsosisterslikecomplementsandheads.


Subjects

subjects

  • A simplesubject is usually a NP

  • Subjects in Turkishareusuallytheinitial NP in a sentencewith a tensedverb.

  • Ünlü şarkıcı deniz kenarındaki lokantada balık yedi

  • Dün satın aldığım kitap çok pahalıydı

  • PronounsarealsoNPs

  • Ben, siz, o, onlar, bu, şu, etc


The pro drop parameter the subj pronoun can be dropped or not

Thepro-dropparameter(thesubjpronoun can be dropped, or not)

  • Turkish can havenullsubjects (pro-droplanguage)

  • languagessuch as English and French dontallownullsubjects(non- prodroplanguages)

  • Küçük bebek sincabı gördü - NP

  • O sincabı gördü - Pronoun

  • Sincabı gördü – nullsubject

    Differentdiscoursefunctions:

  • Introducea newpersonintotheconversation

  • Showsthebaby has beenmentionedpreviously

  • Providesthetopiccontinuity


Sentence structure and phrase structure

It is strangetouseovertsubjectswhenthespeakercontinuesto talk aboutthesameentity

  • Murat eve geldi, #Murat yemek pişirdi, # o yemek yedi, # O kitap okudu

  • Nullsubjectsarealsoconsideredto be NPs. Evenifthesubject is empty, thesentencestill has a subject-predicateconstituentstructure. Thenullsubject is representedwithpro (an emptypronpun)


Subject verb agreement in sentences

Subject-verbagreement in sentences

  • Turkishverbshaveagreementsuffixes: numberandperson.

  • Number can be singularorplural

  • Person can be first, secondandthirdperson.

  • Ben çok çalışırım (firstpersonsingular)

  • Siz çok çalışırsınız (secondpersonplural)


Predicates

predicates

  • Typicallyconstituentsthatfollowsubjects in sentences.

  • Express theactioncarriedbythesubject(arkadaşım yüzdü)

  • Providedescription of thesubject (Ahmet yakışıklı bir subaydır)

  • Show whathappenedtothesubject(adam yere düştü)

  • Express a psychologicalstateexperiencedbythesubject(Ahmet sevindi)

  • Almostuniversallypredicatescontainverbs, theymaycontainotherconstiuentssuch as direct/indirectobjectsandadverbs.


Phrases and phrase structure rules

Phrasesandphrasestructurerules


Sentence structure and phrase structure

  • Phrasesaretheconstituentswhichfunction as subjects, objects, etc in a sentence.

  • A phrasemayconsist of oneormoreconstituentswith a syntacticsignificance.

  • Therearedifferenttypes of phrases in languagessuch as NP, VP, ADJP, ADVP, PP

  • Thecategory of theheaddeterminesthecategoryof thephrase.

    NP – head N

    VP – head V


Sentence structure and phrase structure

  • Simple subjectsareusuallyNPsandpredicatesareVPs since predicateshaveverbs as theircentral element.


Phrase structure rule

Phrasestructurerule

  • Phrasesarerule-governedconstituents.

  • Phrasestructurerulesareintendedto model mentalrepresentations of possiblephrases in a language.

  • S -> NP VP

  • Human beingsstore a limitednumber of rulestoproduceinfinitenumber of phrasesandsentences.


Head parameter

Headparameter

  • Headdirectionality: thedirection of theheaddiffersfromonelanguagetoanother.

  • Turkish is a head final languagewhile English is headinitial.

  • Dün satın aldığım kitap – NP- headkitap

  • Thebookthat I boughtyesterday – NP- headbook

  • Kitap okumak – VP- headokumak

  • Read thebook – VP- headread

  • Makas ile – PP – headile

  • Withscissors – PP- headwith


Noun phrases nps

Nounphrases (NPs)


Sentence structure and phrase structure

  • NPsmostlyfunction as subjectsandobjects in sentences

  • A NP can consist of a singleword, a nounor a pronounormorethanoneword.

  • Thehead of a NP is almostalwaysinflectedforcase, ie. Nominative, accusative, genitive, possessive, etc.

  • Ünlü şarkıcı deniz kenarındaki lokantada balık yedi

  • İki akıllı kız marul salatası yediler

  • Dün satın aldığım kitap çok pahalıydı

    Furtherexamples:

  • Filler, ev, boya, etc- commonNs

  • İstanbul, Mersin, Aslı, etc- properNs

  • Kırmızı kitap, en başarılı sanatçı, etc – modifiedby ADJP

  • Gelen adam, yeni aldığım kitap- consisting of Rel. Cl.

  • Demir kapı, deri koltuk, etc – attributiveNs

  • Ben, sen, o, bu, şu, etc - pronouns


Sentence structure and phrase structure

Pronouns can alsostandforNPs

  • Benim kitabım, Canın kalemi, Onların evleri, bir ev, iki kardeş, bütün yollar, etc

  • TheaboveNPsconsist of determiners. Determinersarefunctionwords, whosefunctionsaretodeterminethereferentialandquantificationalproperties of nouns.

  • Quantificationaldeterminers: bazı, birkaç, her, bütün, etc

  • Referentialdeterminers: bu, şu, o, bunlar, benim, senin, etc.


Sentence structure and phrase structure

  • Turkishdoes not have a definitearticle but an indefinitearticle «bir», which is also a determiner

  • Bir has twodifferentmeanings: 1. showsthenumber, 2. functions as a determiner

  • Bir güzel genç kız, iki güzel genç kız, etc

  • Güzel bir genç kız, ?güzel iki genç kız

  • A quantificationaldeterminerandtheindefinitearticlecannotoccur in thesame NP.

    3. * benim her akıllı bir öğrencim


Sentence structure and phrase structure

Tosumup, a NP in Turkishmayconsist of thefollowingtypes of constituents:

  • Thehead (obligatorybydefinition)

  • Oneormoreadjectivephrases

  • An attributivenoun

  • Oneormorerelativeclauses

  • Oneormoredeterminers

    Thephrasestructurerule of NP in Turkish:

  • NP > (referentialdet.) (rel.cl) (quantificationaldet.) (adj) (indefinitearticle) (noun) Noun

  • [Det Ali’nin [RL dün yıkattığım] [ADJP güzel] [Head halısı]


Sentence structure and phrase structure

  • İyi bir konser salonu bulduk

  • * iyi bir konser bulduk salonu

  • Phrasesaredeterminedaccordingtotheirfunctionandposition in a sentence.


Postpositional phrases

Postpositionalphrases


Sentence structure and phrase structure

Adpositionsarewordclassesthatexpress a relationshipbetweentwoentitiessuch as place, time, locationetc.

  • Prepositions = adposition + NP (like in English)

  • Postposition = NP + adposition (like in Turkish)

  • SomeTurkishpostpositionssuch as ile can becomeclitics (Nerminle)

    Postpositionshavecomplementsthatcompletethem:

  • NP+gibi : bütün arkadaşları gibi

  • * gibi çalışıyor

  • Postpositions, likeverbs, assigncasetotheircomplements(Table, pp 198-199)


Sentence structure and phrase structure

  • PP > NP P

  • PP > (Adv) NP P


Adjective phrases

Adjectivephrases


Sentence structure and phrase structure

It is difficulttodraw a linebetweenadjectivesandnouns in Turkish (as adjstakescaseandpluralendings as nouns)

  • Kız (N)- kızlar, genç (ADJ)-gençler, kıza, gence, etc

  • *daha kız, en kız (Ns not allowed in comparative, superlatives)

  • Daha genç, en genç (table, pp 201)

  • Kırmızı kitap (attributiveadjective)

  • Kitap kırmızıdır (predicativeadjective)

    Adjectives as a head at final

  • Çok güzel, en kolay, yakın


Sentence structure and phrase structure

Adjswith NP complements

  • [gitmeye gönüllü]

  • *[gönüllü]

  • Ahmet [annesine çok düşkün]

  • * Ahmet [düşkün]

    SomeADJPsrequire PP complements

  • [ADJP [PP Cana karşı] duyarlı]

  • [ADJP [PP seninle] mutlu]

  • ADJP > (NP/PP) (Degree ADV) adj.


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