Sentence structure
Download
1 / 30

Sentence structure - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 134 Views
  • Uploaded on

Sentence structure. Getting down to the nuts and bolts. What is a sentence?. A complete sentence includes a subject and a verb, also known as a predicate. Example: “You write.” A complete sentence may also include a pronoun, adjective, adverb, article, preposition, and conjunction.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Sentence structure' - doli


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Sentence structure

Sentence structure

Getting down to the nuts and bolts


What is a sentence
What is a sentence?

  • A complete sentence includes a subject and a verb, also known as a predicate.

    Example: “You write.”

  • A complete sentence may also include a pronoun, adjective, adverb, article, preposition, and conjunction.

    Example: “You write furiously, hoping that your heartfelt essay will earn you an ‘A’ in English but fearing that it may not.”


Let s break it down
Let’s break it down

  • Noun: Name of a person, place, thing, or idea.

    Example: Many students work full time.

  • Pronoun: Replacement for a noun.

    Example: They work full time.


Let s break it down contd
Let’s break it down, contd.

  • Verb: Shows action, occurrence, or state of being.

    Example: Many students work full time.

  • Helping verb: Combines with another verb to become a verb phrase.

    Example: The student has worked full time.


  • Adjective: Describes, names, or quantifies a noun or pronoun.

    Example: Many students work full time.

  • Adverb: A word that modifies a verb, adjective, other adverbs, or whole clauses.

    Example: The grammar workshop was surprisingly painless.


  • Article: Precedes a noun. “A” and “an” are indefinite articles; “the” is a definite article.

  • Example: The grammar workshop wasn’t as painless as the presenter imagined.

  • Preposition: Describes relationships between parts of the sentence.

    Example: Students nodded off during the grammar workshop.

  • Conjunction: Connects words.

    Example: Please stay awake or at least pretend to be.


What is a gerund
What is a gerund?

Gerund phrases use “ing” words as nouns.

Example: Getting students interested in sentence structure [subject/gerund phrase] is not as easy as it looks.


What is an independent clause
What is an independent clause?

  • An independent clause is a word group that makes up a complete sentence.

    Example: You brought an umbrella to school.


What is a dependent clause
What is a dependent clause?

A dependent clause (also known as a subordinate clause) contains a subject and verb. But it is considered a sentence fragment on its own because it starts with a subordinating conjunction (such as “because” or “although”).

Example: When [subordinating conjunction] it rained [dependent clause], [comma]you brought an umbrella to school. [independent clause]


What is santa claus
What is Santa Claus?

Santa Claus [subject] is a jolly fat guy [appositive] who is no relation [relative pronoun] to the grammatical clauses.


What is parallel structure
What is parallel structure?

With parallel structure, we balance single words with single words and clauses with clauses.

Wrong: Katie had big plans for her future: to graduate, to land a job, and teaching effectively.

Right: Katie had big plans for her future: to graduate, to land a job, and to become an excellent teacher.


What is a sentence fragment
What is a sentence fragment?

Fragments are parts of sentences that are punctuated as though they are complete sentences. We avoid these in academic writing.

Examples:

  • A sleepy student who can’t concentrate.

  • Sentence parts discussed willy-nilly.

  • Because learning grammar is about as exciting as watching the grass grow.


A complete sentence needs a subject and verb. It often includes other parts, too.

Example: A sleepy student [subject] who can’t concentrate [appositive renaming the subject] must get [verb phrase] more sleep [direct object].

A complete sentence needs a complete verb.

Example: Sentence parts [subject] are [helping verb] discussed [verb] willy-nilly [adverb].


If a sentence starts with a subordinating conjunction (also known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

Example: Because learning grammar is about as exciting as watching the grass grow [subordinate clause/dependent clause], the presenter includes plenty of clip art in her PowerPoint [independent clause].


What is a run on sentence
What is a run-on sentence? known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

A run-on—or “fused”—sentence is two independent clauses joined without any punctuation or connecting word linking them.

Example: You wrote a fused sentence [independent clause] the Writing Center S.W.A.T. team will show up on your doorstep. [independent clause]


First solution
First solution known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

1. Turn one independent clause into a dependent clause and add a comma.

Example: Because you wrote a fused sentence [dependent clause], [comma] the Writing Center S.W.A.T. team will show up on your doorstep.


Second solution
Second solution known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

2. Use a period to separate the two independent clauses into two sentences.

Example: You wrote a fused sentence. [complete sentence]The Writing Center S.W.A.T. team will show up on your doorstep. [complete sentence]


Third solution
Third solution known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

3. Attach the independent clauses with a comma and coordinating conjunction.

Example: You wrote a fused sentence, [comma] so [coordinating conjunction] the Writing Center S.W.A.T. team will show up on your doorstep.


Fourth solution
Fourth solution known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

4. Attach the independent clauses with a semi-colon.

Example: You wrote a fused sentence; [semi-colon] the Writing Center S.W.A.T. team will show up on your doorstep.


Fifth solution
Fifth solution known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

5. Transform two clauses as one independent clause.

Example: The S.W.A.T. team will turn up on your doorstep now that you’ve written a fused sentence. [independent clause]


What is a comma splice
What is a comma splice? known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

A comma between two independent clauses is a comma splice.

Incorrect: The Writing Center should chill out [independent clause], [comma splice] comma splices are not a criminal offense. [independent clause]


The same 5 solutions will fix it
The same 5 solutions will fix it known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

  • Turn one independent clause into a dependent clause and add a comma.

  • Use a period to separate the two independent clauses into two sentences.

  • Attach the independent clauses with a comma and coordinating conjunction.


Same 5 solutions contd
Same 5 solutions known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause)., contd.

  • Attach the independent clauses with a semi-colon.

  • Transform two clauses into one independent clause.


Why does sentence emphasis matter
Why does sentence emphasis matter? known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

Your most important point should appear as the subject/verb of an independent clause.

Example: As Lindsey glided down the hallway [dependent clause], all the young men’s jaws dropped. [independent clause]


Which sentences should we combine
Which sentences should known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).we combine?

Short, choppy sentences can be combined for improved flow.

Wrong: John went to school. Women followed him. He was puzzled.

Right: After John arrived at school, he was puzzled by the women following him.


How do we vary sentences
How do we vary sentences? known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

Add variety by changing sentence openings, sentence length, and sentence order.

Wrong: Kara likes to wrestle crocodiles. She likes to bungee jump. She likes to sky-dive.

Right: Kara likes to wrestle crocodiles. In addition, she enjoys bungee jumping and sky-diving.


Switch sentence order
Switch sentence order known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

Inverting sentences is another way to achieve sentence variety.

Instead of:

Holly wrote obsessive fan mail to Jack Black in the house across from the post office.

Try:

In the house across from the post office, Holly wrote obsessive fan mail to Jack Black.


Why does all this matter
Why does all this matter? known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

We judge on appearances. By conforming to standard English when appropriate, you exude a sense of scholarship and professionalism.


References
References known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

  • Hacker, D. A Writer’s reference (5th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

  • Lunsford, A. A. (2003). The St. Martin’s handbook (5th ed.) Boston: St. Martin’s.

  • Purdue University. (n.d.). Independent and dependent clauses. Retrieved May 5, 2008, from Purdue University, Online Writing Lab Web site: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_clause.html


References contd
References, contd. known as a dependent clause), it should end with a word group that makes up a complete sentence (an independent clause).

  • Purdue University. (n.d.). Sentence fragments. Retrieved May 5, 2008, from Purdue University, Online Writing Lab Web site: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_frag.html


ad