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Sentence Structure. Sentence Types. Sentence Structure. Sentence Types. Sentence Types. Simple Compound Complex. Basic Elements of Every Sentence. SUBJECT. PREDICATE. Basic Elements. SUBJECT. PREDICATE. Mary. plays tennis . SIMPLE SENTENCE. PREDICATE. SUBJECT. plays tennis.

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Sentence Structure

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Sentence Structure

Sentence Types


Sentence Structure

Sentence Types


Sentence Types

  • Simple

  • Compound

  • Complex


Basic Elementsof Every Sentence

SUBJECT

PREDICATE


Basic Elements

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

Mary

playstennis.


SIMPLE SENTENCE

PREDICATE

SUBJECT

plays tennis.

Mary

one subject one predicate


Simple Sentence

Tom and Mary

play tennis.

Compound Subject

&


Simple Sentence

Tom and Mary

play tennis and swim.

Compound Subject Compound Predicate

&

&


SIMPLE SENTENCEwith compound subject

Tom and Mary play tennis.


SIMPLE SENTENCEwith compound subject andcompound predicate

Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.


Hi,

I’m Punctuation Pete!


SIMPLE SENTENCEwith compound subject andcompound predicate

Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.

No comma before “and”

in compound

subjects and predicates!


Compound Sentence withCoordinating Conjunctions

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

and

SUBJECT

PREDICATE


Compound Sentence

Tom

swims,

and

Mary

plays tennis.


COMPOUND SENTENCE:COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

FOR

AND

NOR

BUT

OR

YET

SO


COMPOUND SENTENCE:COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis.

Clause 1 Clause 2

Independent Independent


COMPOUND SENTENCE:COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis.

Comma before “and”

in compound

sentences!


COMPOUND SENTENCE:CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

MOREOVER

HOWEVER

OTHERWISE

THEREFORE


COMPOUND SENTENCE:CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.

Clause 1 Clause 2

Independent Independent


COMPOUND SENTENCE:CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.

Note: Semicolon before conjunctive

adverb and comma after conjunctive adverb!


Conjunctive Adverbs “float”

  • Conjunctive adverbs are sometimes called “floating” adverbs because they can be positioned at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a clause.


CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:AT THE BEGINNING

Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.


CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:IN THE MIDDLE

Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.


CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:IN THE MIDDLE

Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.

Note: Place commas before and

after a conjunctive adverb

in the middle!


CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:AT THE END

Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.


CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:AT THE END

Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.

Note: Place a comma before

a conjunctive adverb

at the end!


Semicolons

  • “If the relation between the ideas expressed in the main clauses is very close and obvious without a conjunction, you can separate the clauses with a semicolon” (Little, Brown Handbook, 9th Edition, p. 361).


COMPOUND SENTENCE:SEMICOLON

Matt has benefited from his exercise program; he is slim and energetic.


Complex Sentence

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

even though

SUBJECT

PREDICATE


Complex Sentence

Bob

is popular

even though

he

is ugly.


COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

EVEN THOUGH

WHEN

BECAUSE

UNLESS

WHEREAS

ADVERB CLAUSES


COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Bob is popular even though he is ugly.

Clause 1 Clause 2

Independent Dependent


COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular.

Clause 1 Clause 2

Dependent Independent


COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Bob is popular even though he is ugly.

When the MAIN clause is first,

it is usually NOT

followed by a comma!


COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular.

When the ADVERB clause is first,

it is followed by a comma!


Compound-Complex Sentence

Mike

is popular

because

he

is good looking,

but

he

is not very happy.


COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE:COMBINES BOTH TYPES

Mike is popular because he is good looking, but he is not very happy.

Punctuate each clause

according to its rules!


Punctuation

Review!


SIMPLE SENTENCE

My friends and I play tennis and go bowling every weekend.

No commas before “and” in

compound subjects and predicates!


COMPOUND SENTENCE:

Coordinating Conjunction

Men may exercise harder, but they may not exercise as regularly as women do.

Comma before coordinating

conjunction!


COMPOUND SENTENCE:

Conjunctive Adverb

Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; however, some schools fail to distinguish between these groups.

Semicolon before conjunctive

adverb

Comma after conjunctive

adverb!


COMPOUND SENTENCE:

Conjunctive Adverb--in the middle

Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; some schools, however, fail to distinguish between these groups.

Semicolon after first

independent clause--

Commas before and after conjunctive

adverb!


COMPOUND SENTENCE:

Conjunctive Adverb at the end

Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; some schools fail to distinguish between these groups, however.

Semicolon after first

independent clause--

Comma before conjunctive

adverb!


COMPLEX SENTENCE:

Adverb Clauses--Subordinating Conjunction

People had continuous moderate

exercise when they had to hunt for food.

When main clause is first,

it is not usually followed by a comma!


COMPLEX SENTENCE:

Adverb Clauses--Subordinating Conjunction

When people had to hunt for food, they had continuous moderate exercise.

When the adverb clause is first,

it is followed by a comma!


References

Writing Academic English, Second Edition, by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue. White Plains: Addison, Wesley, Longman, 1999.

The Little, Brown Handbook, by H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Pearson, 2004.


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