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Sentence Structure. Sentence Types. Sentence Structure. Sentence Types. Sentence Types. Simple Compound Complex. Basic Elements of Every Sentence. SUBJECT. PREDICATE. Basic Elements. SUBJECT. PREDICATE. Mary. plays tennis . SIMPLE SENTENCE. PREDICATE. SUBJECT. plays tennis.

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sentence structure

Sentence Structure

Sentence Types

sentence structure1

Sentence Structure

Sentence Types

sentence types
Sentence Types
  • Simple
  • Compound
  • Complex
basic elements
Basic Elements

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

Mary

playstennis.

simple sentence
SIMPLE SENTENCE

PREDICATE

SUBJECT

plays tennis.

Mary

one subject one predicate

simple sentence1
Simple Sentence

Tom and Mary

play tennis.

Compound Subject

&

simple sentence2
Simple Sentence

Tom and Mary

play tennis and swim.

Compound Subject Compound Predicate

&

&

simple sentence with compound subject
SIMPLE SENTENCEwith compound subject

Tom and Mary play tennis.

slide11

Hi,

I’m Punctuation Pete!

simple sentence with compound subject and compound predicate1
SIMPLE SENTENCEwith compound subject andcompound predicate

Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.

No comma before “and”

in compound

subjects and predicates!

compound sentence with coordinating conjunctions
Compound Sentence withCoordinating Conjunctions

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

and

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

compound sentence
Compound Sentence

Tom

swims,

and

Mary

plays tennis.

compound sentence coordinating conjunctions1
COMPOUND SENTENCE:COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis.

Clause 1 Clause 2

Independent Independent

compound sentence coordinating conjunctions2
COMPOUND SENTENCE:COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis.

Comma before “and”

in compound

sentences!

compound sentence conjunctive adverbs
COMPOUND SENTENCE:CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

MOREOVER

HOWEVER

OTHERWISE

THEREFORE

compound sentence conjunctive adverbs1
COMPOUND SENTENCE:CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.

Clause 1 Clause 2

Independent Independent

compound sentence conjunctive adverbs2
COMPOUND SENTENCE:CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.

Note: Semicolon before conjunctive

adverb and comma after conjunctive adverb!

conjunctive adverbs float
Conjunctive Adverbs “float”
  • Conjunctive adverbs are sometimes called “floating” adverbs because they can be positioned at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a clause.
conjunctive adverb at the beginning
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:AT THE BEGINNING

Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.

conjunctive adverb in the middle
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:IN THE MIDDLE

Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.

conjunctive adverb in the middle1
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:IN THE MIDDLE

Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.

Note: Place commas before and

after a conjunctive adverb

in the middle!

conjunctive adverb at the end
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:AT THE END

Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.

conjunctive adverb at the end1
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:AT THE END

Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.

Note: Place a comma before

a conjunctive adverb

at the end!

semicolons
Semicolons
  • “If the relation between the ideas expressed in the main clauses is very close and obvious without a conjunction, you can separate the clauses with a semicolon” (Little, Brown Handbook, 9th Edition, p. 361).
compound sentence semicolon
COMPOUND SENTENCE:SEMICOLON

Matt has benefited from his exercise program; he is slim and energetic.

complex sentence
Complex Sentence

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

even though

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

complex sentence1
Complex Sentence

Bob

is popular

even though

he

is ugly.

complex sentence subordinating conjunctions
COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

EVEN THOUGH

WHEN

BECAUSE

UNLESS

WHEREAS

ADVERB CLAUSES

complex sentence subordinating conjunctions1
COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Bob is popular even though he is ugly.

Clause 1 Clause 2

Independent Dependent

complex sentence subordinating conjunctions2
COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular.

Clause 1 Clause 2

Dependent Independent

complex sentence subordinating conjunctions3
COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Bob is popular even though he is ugly.

When the MAIN clause is first,

it is usually NOT

followed by a comma!

complex sentence subordinating conjunctions4
COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular.

When the ADVERB clause is first,

it is followed by a comma!

compound complex sentence
Compound-Complex Sentence

Mike

is popular

because

he

is good looking,

but

he

is not very happy.

compound complex sentence combines both types
COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE:COMBINES BOTH TYPES

Mike is popular because he is good looking, but he is not very happy.

Punctuate each clause

according to its rules!

slide39

SIMPLE SENTENCE

My friends and I play tennis and go bowling every weekend.

No commas before “and” in

compound subjects and predicates!

slide40

COMPOUND SENTENCE:

Coordinating Conjunction

Men may exercise harder, but they may not exercise as regularly as women do.

Comma before coordinating

conjunction!

slide41

COMPOUND SENTENCE:

Conjunctive Adverb

Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; however, some schools fail to distinguish between these groups.

Semicolon before conjunctive

adverb

Comma after conjunctive

adverb!

slide42

COMPOUND SENTENCE:

Conjunctive Adverb--in the middle

Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; some schools, however, fail to distinguish between these groups.

Semicolon after first

independent clause--

Commas before and after conjunctive

adverb!

slide43

COMPOUND SENTENCE:

Conjunctive Adverb at the end

Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; some schools fail to distinguish between these groups, however.

Semicolon after first

independent clause--

Comma before conjunctive

adverb!

slide44

COMPLEX SENTENCE:

Adverb Clauses--Subordinating Conjunction

People had continuous moderate

exercise when they had to hunt for food.

When main clause is first,

it is not usually followed by a comma!

slide45

COMPLEX SENTENCE:

Adverb Clauses--Subordinating Conjunction

When people had to hunt for food, they had continuous moderate exercise.

When the adverb clause is first,

it is followed by a comma!

references
References

Writing Academic English, Second Edition, by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue. White Plains: Addison, Wesley, Longman, 1999.

The Little, Brown Handbook, by H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Pearson, 2004.

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