on the height distribution of convection in the tropics
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On the Height Distribution of Convection in the Tropics. Andrew Ballinger Monash University. Introduction and Motivation. Variety of convection in the tropics Multi-modal distribution of storm heights? Johnson et al , 1999. May and Rajopadhyaya, 1999. Implications:

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Presentation Transcript
introduction and motivation
Introduction and Motivation
  • Variety of convection in the tropics
  • Multi-modal distribution of storm heights?
      • Johnson et al, 1999.
      • May and Rajopadhyaya, 1999.
  • Implications:
    • Tropospheric/Stratospheric exchange
    • Storm detrainment heights
    • Cirrus characteristics
    • Interpretation of satellite data
types of convection
Types of Convection

Continental

  • High Z extends well above FZL
  • Active lightning
  • Strong vertical motion
  • “Break” period
      • Low-level easterlies

Oceanic

  • High Z mostly below FZL
  • Little lightning
  • Relatively “small” vertical motion
  • “Monsoon” period
      • Low-level westerlies
titan
TITAN

Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis, and Nowcasting.

Reflectivity – 2km

Reflectivity – 5km

Reflectivity – 10km

Reflectivity – 17km

Dixon and Wiener, 1993

distribution of storm max heights

Distribution of storm max heights

10

10

16

17

14

14

Distribution of storm max heights

Monsoon

35 dBZ

45 dBZ

Monsoon

Tropopause

Break

35 dBZ

45 dBZ

Break

break diurnal cycle of storm max heights 35 dbz
Break – Diurnal cycle of storm max heights (35 dBZ)

09:30 – 11:30

15:30 – 17:30

11:30 – 13:30

17:30 – 19:30

13:30 – 15:30

19:30 – 21:30

summary
Summary
  • Convective cells deeper in break compared with monsoon
  • More intense cells in break period with strong overshoots of the tropopause
  • Intense cells mostly reach tropopause
  • In the monsoon period a height distribution max is found at 10km
  • Diurnal cycle of cell heights shows build up during the day.
references
References
  • Dixon, M., and G. Wiener, 1993: “TITAN: Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis, and Nowcasting – A Radar-based Methodology”, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10, 785–797.
  • Johnson, R.H., T.M. Rickenbach, S.A. Rutledge, P.E. Ciesielski and W.H. Schubert, 1999: “Trimodal Characteristics of Tropical Convection”, J. Clim., 12, 2397–2418.
  • Keenan, T.D., J. McBride, G. Holland, N. Davidson and B. Gunn, 1989: “Diurnal Variations during the Australian Monsoon Experiment (AMEX) Phase II”, Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 2535–2552.
  • López, R.E., 1976: “Radar Characteristics of the Cloud Populations of Tropical Disturbances in the Northwest Atlantic”, Mon. Wea. Rev., 104, 268–283.
storm duration
Storm Duration

Monsoon

Total

Break

reflectivity thresholds 35
Reflectivity Thresholds (35)

10 dBz

1 dBz

15 dBz

5 dBz

reflectivity thresholds 45
Reflectivity Thresholds (45)

10 dBz

1 dBz

15 dBz

5 dBz

monsoon break definition
Monsoon/Break Definition

Monsoon

21/12/03 – 16/1/04

Break 17/1/04

– 31/1/04

gate results
GATE Results

ShallowCumulus

CongestusCumulus

Cumulonimbus

outline
Outline
  • Introduction and Motivation
  • Formulation of dataset
  • Results
  • Summary
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Dr Peter May – BMRC
  • Monash University
  • Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre
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