Emerging cleavages
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Emerging Cleavages. A New Europe? A New Right?. Final Exam:. Thursday, April 17 th 9-11:00 AM SN2000 List of questions to be distributed Thursday Format: 2 Essays. Europe in the new millennium. A larger and somewhat deeper European Union Democratic Generally prosperous

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Emerging Cleavages

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Emerging cleavages

Emerging Cleavages

A New Europe?

A New Right?


Final exam

Final Exam:

Thursday, April 17th

9-11:00 AM

SN2000

List of questions to be distributed Thursday

Format: 2 Essays


Europe in the new millennium

Europe in the new millennium

  • A larger and somewhat deeper European Union

  • Democratic

  • Generally prosperous

  • Yet signs that older patterns eroding

    • Wider swings in elections

    • Weakening support for established parties

    • Growth of new right


The new right

The New Right

  • Front Nationale (FN) in France

  • Lega Nord (LN) in Italy

  • Freedom Party (FPÖ) in Austria

  • Democrats (Sweden)

  • Danish People’s Party

  • Flemish Block (Belgium)

  • List Pim Fortuyn (LPF) and the Freedom Party (PVV) in the Netherlands


New right parties

New Right Parties

  • Populist

  • Leader-centred

  • Common features: Anti parties

    • anti-EU

    • anti-immigrant

    • anti-establishment

  • Positions not always internally consistent

    • Tend to be anti-state, pro market

    • But sometimes also protectionist


Explaining the new right

Explaining the New Right

  • Weakening hold of established parties:

    • Difficulties maintaining or re-establishing electorates of belonging – loyal supporters

  • Ability of capitalize on disgruntlement, sense that things are not quite right

  • Use of local issues – e.g. Lega & anti-southern sentiment

  • Use of the media


Euro skepticism

Euro-skepticism

  • Stronger in some countries than others

    • UK

    • Denmark

  • EU & Europe as an elite project, about which voters were not consulted

    • Enlargement

    • EURO

    • Constitution

  • Dutch and French referenda as example

    • Desire to ensure local (member-state) control


Anti immigrant sentiment

Anti-immigrant sentiment

  • Immigration & migration largely unplanned or not fully thought through

  • Growing concentrations, especially in larger centres

  • Incomplete integration and assimilation

    • Marginal economic position – insufficient employment or opportunities

    • Differences in values – caught between two worlds

    • Incomplete acceptance by host populations


Anti establishment sentiment

Anti-establishment sentiment

Elites seen as

  • Out of touch

  • In collusion – parties the same

  • Not coping with real problems

    Examples:

  • Austria: reaction against proporz & power-sharing

  • Netherlands:

    • Saga of Pim Fortuyn

    • Geert Wilders and the Freedom Party


Where is this going

Where is this going?

  • Is the New Right a new party family?

    • Patterns of surge and decline

    • Difficulties when brought into government

  • Responses from established parties:

    • Policy shifts…

    • Repositioning & regrouping…


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