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Unit One. 词汇的掌握. 考试大纲词汇要求. 掌握 4250 个单词和 500 个常用词组 复用式掌握其中的 1800 常用单词和 200 个词组 派生词 试题中词汇语法题占 20 分. ① The newly promoted assistant manager expressed a wish to be ____ to the London branch. ( 2005 年 ) [A] exchanged [B] transmitted [C] transferred [D] moved A 交换 B 传送 C 调动 D 搬到.

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unit one

Unit One

词汇的掌握

slide2
考试大纲词汇要求
  • 掌握4250个单词和500个常用词组
  • 复用式掌握其中的1800常用单词和200个词组
  • 派生词
  • 试题中词汇语法题占20分
slide3
① The newly promoted assistant manager expressed a wish to be ____ to the London branch.(2005年)

[A] exchanged [B] transmitted

[C] transferred [D] moved

A 交换 B 传送 C 调动 D 搬到

slide4
② ____ your jacket, please. The room is very warm. (2005年)

[A] Take off [B] Take after

[C] Take up [D] Take on

A 脱掉 B 与…相似 C 开始 D 呈现

slide5

③ David was completely ____ by his robber’s

disguise. (2005,天津)

[A] take down [B] taken on

[C] taken in [D] taken up

A 写下 B 呈现 C 欺骗 D 占据

slide6
The doctor ___ me to the danger of not getting enough rest while working overtime. (2005年)

[A] alerted [B] reminded

[C] led [D] persuaded

A. 警告 B 提醒 C 引导 D 劝说

短语: alert sb. to sth. 警告…

slide7

例句 (2005,广东)

  • Over a third of the population in that African country was estimated to have no ___ to the health service.

A. excess B. success

C. process D. access

A. 过度 B. 成功 C. 过程 D. 接近(机会)

slide8
例句 (2005年)

There is nothing ____ about a native English-

speaking teacher except that he speaks English

easily and well.

[A] particular [B] special

[C] specific [D] especial

slide9

重点词汇讲解

易混相似词和词组辨析

1 access excess success process
1. access; excess; success; process
  • access: 进入;利用…的权利(机会)
  • excess: 过分;过度
  • success: 成功
  • process: 过程; 经过;
2 accuse remind inform rob suspect convince
2. accuse; remind; inform; rob; suspect; convince

用法相同的:

  • accuse sb. of sth. 指控…
  • remind sb. of sth…. 提醒……
  • inform sb. of … 通知……
  • rob sb. of…. 抢劫…
  • suspect sb. of … 怀疑….
  • convince sb. of … 让… 相信
slide12

Ex:

--- We accused him of stealing the book.

--- The picture reminded me of the old days.

--- The teacher informed us of the meeting

next week.

--- The man robbed the old lady of her purse.

slide13

3

be accustomed to + 名词/Ving;

be used to +名词/Ving 习惯于…

比较:used to + 动词 过去常常做…

slide14

Ex:

--- We are accustomed to the weather here.

--- He is used to living in the big city now.

--- He used to help me when I was in trouble.

--- We used not to go fishing on Sunday.

slide15
4. adopt; adapt; adjust;

adopt: 收养, 采纳, 采用

词组:adopt sth. 采纳…

adopt sb. 收养某人

adapt: 使…适应; 改编

词组:

  • adapt (oneself) to sth. 适应…
slide16
EX:

--- He adopted our suggestion.

(他采纳了我们的建议.)

--- Since they have no children of their own, they decided to adopt a little girl.

(他们自己没有孩子,所以决定收养一个小女孩。)

--- The boy adapted himself to the life here.

slide17
例句 (2005年)

The new immigrants found it hard to____

themselves to the climate of the country.

[A] adopt [B] adapt

[C] regulate [D] coordinate

slide18

adjust: 调节;适应

用法:adjust (oneself) to + 名词

EX:

---Shesoonadjustedherselftohisway oflife.

她很快使自己适应了他的生活方式。

5 advance progress
5. advance; progress; 进展
  • 词组:

make progress 取得进步

make an advance/make advances 取得进步

Ex:

--- We have made progress these days.

--- He has made advances both in work and in

study.

slide20
6. able; capable; competent

able: 做事所需的力量,技巧

词组:be able to do sth. (能够做…)

capable: 满足一般需要的能力

词组:be capable of doing sth. (能够做…)

competent: 胜任的

词组:be competent to do sth.

be competent for sth.

slide21
7. available; applicable;

approachable; attainable

available (to): 可用的, 可获得的

applicable (to): 适用的;可应用的;

approachable: 可接近的;可进入的

attainable: 可到达的;可达成的

slide22
available: 可用的;可获得的

EX:

--- Breakfast is available to fishermen from 6. a.m..

从上午六点起渔民有早餐供应.

--- There are three small boats available for hire.

有三置小船可供租用.

slide23
例句 (2006年)

Powerful computers _____ translating

documents from one language into the other

have recently been developed in Japan.

[A] able to [B] available to

[C] capable of [D] liable to

slide24
例句

None of the servants were ____ when Mr.

Smith wanted to send a message.

[A] available [B] applicable

[C] approachable [D] attainable

slide25

liable: 易于….的; 易患…..

短语:be liable to do sth. 易于….的

Ex:

--- We are liable to make mistakes.

短语: be liable to sth. 易患…..

Ex:

--- A baby is liable to diseases.

婴儿易患疾病.

8 afford
8. afford的用法
  • 与can 或could 连用;不能单独使用
  • can/could afford sth. 买得起;承担得起;

Ex:

--- I can afford the bike.

我买得起这个自行车。

  • can/could afford to do sth. 承担得起做…

Ex:

--- How can I afford (to spend) so much money for a car?

我怎么付得起这么多钱买这部车?

slide27
9. alone, lonely

alone: 副词 单独地; adj. 单独的 (只作表语)

lonely: adj. 孤单的, (作表语和定语)

Ex:

--- I spent a lot of time alone.

--- You are not alone any longer.

--- a lonely island

slide28
例句

I shall have a companion in the house after

all these ______ years.

[A] lonely [B] sole

[C] single [D] alone

slide29
10. effective; efficient; efficacious

effective: 有效的, 有影响力的

efficient: 效率高的, 有效率的

efficacious: 有效验的

EX:

--- take effective measures 采取有效措施

--- effective medicine

--- The telephone system is highly efficient.

(这个电话系统效率很高。)

slide30
例 句

One of the most ____ ways of improving

listening comprehension is by watching

television.

[A] specific [B] effective

[C] special [D] efficient

slide31
例句

They took _____ measures to prevent poisonous

gases from escaping.

[A] beneficial [B] effective

[C] fruitful [D] valid

slide32

effect (名词&动词) 影响,结果

词组:

have an effect on sth….. (对… 有影响)

EX:

---Themedicinehasagoodeffectonme.

(这种药对我有良好的功效。)

  • affect (动词)影响

--- The noise from the street affected our work.

(马路上的噪音影响我们工作。)

slide33

Examples:

  • Her mind was so ____ by the disease that she could not remember who she was.

[A] influence [B] acted

[C] effected [D] affected

slide34

influence & effect (正面) 影响

  • affect (负面)影响
  • act 起作用;行动

--- Does the drug take long to act?

--- In this case we acted properly and responsibly.

在这件事上我们做得恰当,而且是负责任的.

slide35
11. arise; raise; rise; arouse

arise: 出现,产生

raise: 使… 上升; 提高;

rise: 上升, 升起

arouse: 唤起; 激起;

slide36
例句 (2007,北京)

With oil prices keeping _____, people are

hesitating whether to buy a car or not.

[A] rising [B] arising

[C] raising [D] arousing

slide37

raise: 增加;提高; 栽培;抚育

Ex:

--- raise the rent of the room 提高房租

--- raise the standard of living 提高生活水准

--- raise wheat 种小麦

--- raise a child 养小孩

slide38

arouse: 唤起;激起

Ex:

--- The book arouses my interest in English.

(这本书引起我对英语的兴趣.)

--- arouse anxiety/curiosity/suspicion

(引起不安/好奇心/怀疑)

slide39
12. reward; grant; allowance;

pension; fund;

reward: 酬金

grant: 助学金,奖学金

allowance: 津贴,补贴

slide40

例句 (2006年)

All the British universities receive some

government ___ except Buckingham.

[A] allowance [B] grants

[C] funding [D] cooperation

slide41
例句 (2005年)

Life presents many barriers, and all too often

those who work hardest may not receive great

______.

[A]rewards [B] grants

[C] allowance [D] praise

slide42

13. reward & award (动词)

reward: 报答;答谢;奖赏

词组: reward sb. with sth.

--- The teacher rewarded the student with a

computer.

(老师奖赏这个学生一台电脑.)

slide43

award: 授予;奖励;奖赏

用法: award sth. to sb.

award sb. sth.

EX:

--- The judges awarded the first prize to her

for her picture.

--- The judges awarded her the first prize for

her picture.

(评审委员把她的画评为头奖.)

slide44
14. special; specific; especial; particular

special: 特别的,专门的

specific: 明确的, 具体的; 特定的

especial: 特别的, 尤其,格外的(文语词)

particular:特殊的;个别的, 挑剔的

slide45

EX:

--- This is the special day in the history of our country.

(今天是我国历史上一个特殊的日子.)

--- I want a specific explanation.

(我要一个具体的解释.)

--- She has an especial fondness for music.

(她对音乐又特殊的偏好.)

--- There is nothing in the letter of particular importance.

(这封信里没有特别重要的内容.)

slide46

例句 (2006年)

  • One of the most ____ ways of improving listening comprehension is by watching television.

[A] specific [B] proficient

[C] efficient [D] special

slide47
15. contribute; attribute; distribute; retribute;

contribute to sth. 贡献…; 导致…

attribute … to … 把… 归因于

distribute sth. 分发

Ex:

--- The design faults contribute to the tragedy.

--- Women tend to attribute their success to luck.

--The guy distributed the leaflets and posters to passers-by.

slide48
例句 (2005年)

Those who failed in the entrance examinations

are likely to ___ their failures to bad luck.

[A] contribute [B] attribute

[C] distribute [D] retribute

slide49

以下短语意思: 引起…;导致… (主语为原因; 宾语为结果)

  • result in…
  • bring about…
  • lead to…
  • give rise to…
  • cause
slide50

EX:

--- Your carelessness will lead to failure in work.

--- I don’t know what brought about the change

in his thinking.

我不知道什么原因导致他改变想法.

slide51

16. result from… 造成… 结果

Ex:

--- His failure in the exam resulted

from his carelessness.

考试不及格是由于他的粗心造成的。

  • attribute …to ….

Ex:

--- She attributed her failure to bad luck.

她把失败的原因于运气不好。

slide52
17. request; require; need

request sb. to do sth. 请求…做…

require sb. to do sth. 要求…做…

need sb. to do sth. 需要…做…

MORE:

request that….( 从句用虚拟语气)

require that….( 从句用虚拟语气)

slide53
18. persuade; dissuade;

persuade sb. to do sth. 劝…做…

dissuade sb. from doing sth. 劝阻…

More to learn:

persuasive: 有说服力的

--- a persuasive opinion

slide54
例句 (2006年)

In European universities, students are

not ____ to attend classes.

[A] requested [B] persuaded

[C] needed [D] required

(key: D)

slide55
19. beside; besides; except

beside: 在…旁边;

besides: 除…以外(还包括);

except:除…以外(不包括);

Ex:

--- Beside his plate is a pile of books.

--- She has many good qualities besides

being beautiful.

--- I don’t take any drugs except aspirin.

slide56
20. except & except for除…以外(不包括)

Ex:

--- He reads nothing except comic magazines.

(他除了漫画杂志以外什么都不看。)

--- He goes to the library every day except when he is not well.

(他除了身体不舒服以外,每天都上图书馆)

slide57
CF:

--- The movie was good except for the ending.

(这部电影除了结尾以外都很好。)

--- We enjoyed the party except for the loud

music.

( 除了音乐嘈杂了点, 我们在舞会上很开心。)

slide58
例句 (2006年, 北京)

____ Japanese, she has to study another foreign

language.

[A] Except [B] Except for

[C] In addition to [D] Beside

Key: C

In addition to… = besides

slide59
例句 (2006年, 北京)

The little village hasn’t changed much

____ a new road and two more stores.

[A] except [B] besides

[C] except that [D] except for

Key: D

slide60

例句 (2006年)

  • Practically, university students have a lot to learn ___ the textbook and class.

[A] except for [B] aside from

[C] away from [D] insides of

  • aside from.. = besides
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