The housing health and safety rating system
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The Housing Health and Safety Rating System . The Healthy Homes Rating System . Interactive tool. https:// drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B8REr4fsWecuRnJBXzYxSzE4cDg&usp=sharing Windows only. Aims of the Session. Learn about the use of the Healthy Homes Rating System in England

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The housing health and safety rating system

The Housing Health and Safety Rating System

The Healthy Homes Rating System


Interactive tool

Interactive tool

  • https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B8REr4fsWecuRnJBXzYxSzE4cDg&usp=sharing

  • Windows only


Aims of the session

Aims of the Session

  • Learn about the use of the Healthy Homes Rating System in England

  • Focus on health impacts from housing and their relevance from an English perspective

  • See two software tools

    • Interactive house

    • Health Cost Calculator


Aims of the session1

Aims of the Session

  • Learn about the use of the Healthy Homes Rating System in England

  • Focus on health impacts from housing and their relevance from an English perspective

  • See two software tools

    • Interactive house

    • Health Cost Calculator


What is the healthy homes rating system

What is the healthy homes rating system?


Principle behind rating system

Principle behind rating system

A dwelling, including the structure and associated outbuildings and garden, yard and/or other amenity space, should provide a safe and healthy environment for the occupants and any visitors.


What is it

What is it...?

  • It’s how we evaluate potential risks to health and safety that may arise from deficiencies in a dwelling

  • It looks at:

    • Likelihood of harm

    • Probable severity of that harm

  • It assesses 29 different hazards

  • Comfort does not matter!


Categories of hazard

Categories of hazard

  • Physiological requirements

    • e.g. damp and mould growth, excess cold, excess heat, carbon monoxide, lead, VOC’s

  • Psychological requirements

    • e.g. entry by intruders, lighting, noise

  • Protection against infection

    • e.g. food safety, sanitation

  • Protection against accidents

    • e.g. falls, fire, structural collapse


All the hazards

Damp and mould growth

Excess cold

Excess heat

Asbestos (and MMF)

Biocides

CO and combustion products

Lead

Radiation

Uncombusted fuel gas

VOCs

Crowding and space

Entry by intruders

Lighting

Noise

Domestic hygiene, pests and refuse

Food safety

Personal hygiene, sanitation and drainage

Water supply

Falls associated with baths

Falling on level surfaces etc.

Falling on stairs etc.

Falling between levels

Electrical hazards

Fire

Flames, hot surfaces, etc.

Collision and entrapment

Explosions

Position and operability of amenities

Structural collapse and falling elements

All The Hazards


Hazard profiles

Hazard profiles

For each hazard:

  • Definition is offered

  • Potential for harm is identified

  • Vulnerable groups are identified

  • The ‘ideal’ is identified

  • Relevant features are described

  • Guidance is developed


Health outcomes

Health outcomes

Four classes of harm identified

  • Class 1 – extreme

  • Class 2 – severe

  • Class 3 – serious

  • Class 4 - moderate


Class 1

Class 1

Examples include:

  • Death from any cause;

  • Lung cancer;

  • Mesothelioma and other malignant lung tumours;

  • Permanent paralysis below the neck;

  • Regular severe pneumonia;

  • Permanent loss of

  • consciousness;

  • 80% burn injuries.


Class 2

Class 2

  • Cardio-respiratory disease;

  • Asthma;

  • Non-malignant respiratory diseases;

  • Lead poisoning;

  • Anaphylactic shock;

  • Crytosporidiosis;

  • Legionnaires disease;

  • Myocardial infarction;

  • Mild stroke;

  • Chronic confusion;

  • Regular severe fever;

  • Loss of a hand or foot;

  • Serious fractures;

  • Serious burns;

  • Loss of consciousness for days


Class 3 serious harm outcomes

Class 3 – serious harm outcomes

  • Eye disorders;

  • Rhinitis;

  • Hypertension;

  • Sleep disturbance;

  • Neuro-pyschologicalimpairment;

  • Sick building syndrome;

  • Regular and persistent dermatitis, including contact dermatitis;

  • Allergy;

  • Gastro-enteritis;

  • Diarrhoea; Vomiting;

  • Chronic severe stress;

  • Mild heart attack;

  • Malignant but treatable skin cancer;

  • Loss of a finger;

  • Fractured skull and severe concussion;

  • Serious puncture wounds to head or body;

  • Severe burns to hands;

  • Serious strain or sprain injuries;

  • Regular and severe migraine.


Class 4

Class 4

  • Regular serious colds or coughs

  • Pleural plaques;

  • Occasional severe discomfort;

  • Benign tumours;

  • Occasional mild pneumonia;

  • Broken finger;

  • Slight concussion;

  • Moderate cuts to face or body;

  • Severe bruising to body;

  • Regular serious coughs or colds.


Linking deficiencies to hazards

Linking deficiencies to hazards

  • Once identified, deficiencies must be allocated to a hazard

  • A deficiency may contribute to more than one hazard

  • Several deficiencies may contribute to one hazard


Deficiencies to hazards

Deficiencies to Hazards

  • It is the cumulative contribution of the deficiencies to the hazard that should be assessed

  • It is a whole dwelling assessment for each hazard

  • Assumes the ‘at risk group’ inhabit the property


The housing health and safety rating system

BOX 1

Similar Hazards, with Differing Outcomes

Example –

There is a window with a low internal sill (about 250mm above the floor). A small child could climb onto the sill and open the window relatively easily and could fall out through the open window. The likelihood of this occurring over the next twelve months is judged to be around 1 in 180.

If that window is on the ground floor with grass immediately below, the outcome would be relatively minor – 99% Class IV (bruising) and perhaps 1% Class III (a strain or sprain). This would give a Hazard Score of 7 (Band J).

However, if that same window is on the 2nd floor with a paved area immediately below, the outcome would be major – 10% Class I (paralysis or even death), 80% Class II (serious fractures) and 10% Class III (a strain or sprain). This would give a Hazard Score of 1,016 (Band C).

Although in both cases the likelihood is the same, the Hazard Score reflects the dramatically different outcome.


Use of the healthy homes rating system in england and wales

Use of the healthy homes rating system in England and wales


Housing act 2004

Housing Act 2004

  • HHSRS (HHRS) is enshrined in legislation

  • England and Wales assessment system for all housing

  • Stock condition surveys

  • Decent Homes Standard


Issues with uk housing

Issues with UK housing

  • Excess cold

  • Falls on stairs

  • Falls on the level

  • Falls between levels

  • Fire, damp and mould, hot surfaces, radon, pests

  • Overcrowding, electrical, CO, sanitation, noise


Increasing awareness

Increasing awareness

  • Attitudes

  • Ignorance

  • Political will

  • Prevention vs cure

  • Old housing

  • Fuel poverty


Interactive tool1

Interactive tool

  • https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B8REr4fsWecuRnJBXzYxSzE4cDg&usp=sharing

  • Windows only


Quantifying improvements and justifying your work

Quantifying improvements and justifying your work

  • Hard to measure something that has not occurred

  • Justify expense of interventions

  • Interventions can vary in cost considerably


The housing health and safety rating system

BRE, 2008


The housing health and safety rating system

  • Quantifies poor housing

  • Providing a tool for policy

  • Funded by BRE Trust and carried out by BRE in partnership with the Universities of Warwick and Brighton


Costs to society of living with hhsrs hazards

Costs to society of living with HHSRS hazards

(adapted from BRE, n.d.)


Typical healthy homes rating system outcomes and 1 st year treatment costs 40 of total costs

Typical Healthy Homes Rating System outcomes and 1st year treatment costs (40% of total costs)

(BRE, n.d.)


Health cost calculator

Health Cost Calculator

  • Building Research Establishment & RHE

    ‘The Trust commissions research into the challenges faced by the built environment and publishes project findings which act as authoritative guidance to the construction industry’

    (BRE, 2014)

  • Uses direct costs of medical treatment and aftercare (<1yr)

    • Robust data

  • Probably accounts for 40% of total costs


Health cost calculator1

Health Cost Calculator

  • Uses reduction in probability of category 1 hazardous event and severity of outcomes

  • Provides projected savings on healthcare costs based on NPV calculations

  • Gives account of costs vs savings

    • Payback period

  • Cumulative record for area based work


How it all works

How it all works

Expected Cost

to NHS (£)

HAZARD

-

Work

Cost of work (£)

Expected Cost

to NHS (£)

HAZARD Mitigated

=

/

Saving (£)

=

Payback period


Example

Example

  • Cost to fit banister £400/$669

  • Annual savings on healthcare £146/244

  • Payback 2.7 years


Area based work courtesy of bristol cc

Area based work (courtesy of Bristol CC)


Savings from five officers working across a 460 000 person city courtesy of bristol cc

Savings from five officers working across a 460,000 person city (courtesy of Bristol CC)


Payback period for officers work courtesy of bristol cc

Payback period for officers’ work (courtesy of Bristol CC)


The housing health and safety rating system

  • Cases can be added one by one

  • You can identify dwellings by address, UPRN or both

  • HHRS system uses representative scale points

  • NHS costs and costs to society appear at the bottom of the screen


Thank you for listening

Henry Dawson

[email protected]

Thank you for listening


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