Post classical civilization in sub saharan africa
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POSt -Classical Civilization in SUB- SAHARAn Africa. Tribes = based on kinship Led by chief or king Military commander, chief priest, head judge, lawmaker council of elders = advise Religion Ancestor worship & animism Secret societies Educate children in tribe’s customs

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POSt -Classical Civilization in SUB- SAHARAn Africa

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Post classical civilization in sub saharan africa

POSt-Classical Civilization in SUB-SAHARAn Africa


Commonalities in african society

  • Tribes = based on kinship

    • Led by chief or king

      • Military commander, chief priest, head judge, lawmaker

    • council of elders = advise

  • Religion

    • Ancestor worship & animism

  • Secret societies

    • Educate children in tribe’s customs

    • Limit ruler’s authority

    • Settle disputes & enforce punishments

  • Little crime; wealth = many friends & children

  • Family

    • Husband pays bride price

    • Polygamy = multiple wives

Commonalities IN African Society


Ethiopia 1200 1400s

  • First Christian kingdom in Africa

  • Culturally isolated

    • Unique Christian faith

  • Faced constant threat by Muslim invaders

  • King Lalibela (1200s)

    • Sponsored church construction sculpted from rock

  • Dynasty began in which kings claimed descent from King Solomon

    • Continued until 1900s.

Ethiopia (1200-1400S)


Ethiopia lalibela

ETHIOPIA: LALIBELA


Lalibela

Lalibela


Post classical african trade

Post-classical African Trade


Post classical civilization in sub saharan africa

MALI


Mali 1230 1468

  • Founded by the Malinke people

  • Known for = commerce, bureaucracy, scholarship

  • Key to success = agriculture & trade

    • Caravan trade across Sahara

    • Contact with Muslim merchants

  • Conversion to Islam

    • Mainly merchants & rulers

    • Convert in order to gain stature among Arab states

    • Others = mix Islamic with local religion

  • Timbuktu = capital

Mali: 1230-1468


Mali sundiata

  • 1st great Malian king

  • Known as “Lion Prince”

  • Ruled 1230-1255 A.D.

  • Took title of “Mansa” =

    “emperor”

  • strong military leader

    • Unified state  Mali

    • Established social arrangements

    • Secured kingdom

  • Griots = oral historians & king’s advisors

MALI: SUNDIATA


Mali mansa musa

  • Reigned 1312-1337 A.D.

  • Made Hajj to Mecca

    • 15,000 people in his party

    • 500 slaves carred gold

    • gave so much gold away

      that he caused inflation in Egypt for a decade

    • Brought back muslim architect = construct mosques

  • Empire declined with Musa’s death

Mali: Mansa Musa


Mali timbuktu

  • Major trading hub:

    • Gold, slaves, salt

  • Center of Islamic learning

    • 150 schools

    • Library

  • Home of merchants,

    artisans, & scholars

  • Religious & ethnic

    toleration

Mali: Timbuktu


Mali timbuktu1

Mali: Timbuktu

SANKORE MOSQUE


Mali great mosque at djenne

Mali: Great mosque At Djenne


Mali great mosque at djenne1

MaLI: Great Mosque at DJENNE


Songhay

  • Rises from w/in Mali

  • independence = c1370s

  • Gained power under

    Sunni Ali (military might)

  • wealth = gold trade

    DECLINE: -ATTACKED BY MUSLIMS FROM MOROCCO (1591 AD)

    -INTERNAL REVOLT AGAINST RULERS

SONGHAY

SUNNI ALI


The swahili coast

The Swahili Coast


Swahili coast

  • East coast of Africa (Zanj)

    • Arab traders

      • Established cities

        • Mogadishu, Kilwa, Zanzibar

    • Influence African culture

      • merchants adopt Islam

      • Increase demand for interior’s

        products

      • Swahili culture:

        • Mix of Arab & African life

        • ex.Language, architecture, dress

Swahili Coast


Post classical civilization in sub saharan africa

Dhows near Zanzibar


Swahili coast1

Swahili Coast


Yoruba benin

  • Yoruba

    • Nigeria (small city-states, ie. Ile-Ife)

    • Unclear origins

    • Regional kings (divine w/civil powers)

    • Terra cotta & bronze busts (post 1200 CE)

  • Benin

    • East of Yoruba

    • Formed in 14th C

    • “Oba” = ruler

    • Bronze and ivory art

Yoruba & BEnin


Yoruba benin1

Yoruba & Benin

Ife, Nigeria (12th-15th C.


Kongo great zimbabwe

  • Begins c.13th-15th C

  • Confederation of small

    states

  • Control by “manikongo”

    (king)

  • Farming & cattle-herding

  • “zimbabwe” = stone

    house (for ruler &

    sub-chiefs)

    • Best example is “Great

      Zimbabwe”

    • 1400s – led by

      MweneMutapa

    • Controlled interior’s gold

    • Split apart by internal divisions & rebellion

Kongo: Great Zimbabwe


Great zimbabwe

Great Zimbabwe


Great zimbabwe1

GREAT ZIMBABWE


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