Instructional designs theories into programs
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Instructional Designs: Theories into Programs. Allison Rossett San Diego State University. Overview. Behavioral Approaches Behavior Modification Behavior Modeling Cognitive Approaches Conditions of Learning Component Display Theory Advance Organizer Constructivism. Overview.

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Instructional designs theories into programs

Instructional Designs: Theories into Programs

Allison RossettSan Diego State University


Overview

Overview

  • Behavioral Approaches

    • Behavior Modification

    • Behavior Modeling

  • Cognitive Approaches

    • Conditions of Learning

    • Component Display Theory

    • Advance Organizer

    • Constructivism


Overview1

Overview

  • Objectivism vs Constructivism

  • Humanistic Approaches

    • Cooperative Learning

    • Motivational Design

    • Adult Learning


What is behaviorism

What is behaviorism?

  • At the turn of the last century, William Wundt studied minds and learning through human introspection, asking what they were thinking

  • Behaviorism rose up in response. Focus on observable behaviors, stimulus conditions that control behaviors. Good for cats and rats, not particularly good for understanding reasoning and motivation in humans

  • Eventually behaviorism with a little ‘b’ evolved, with focus on observable behaviors and assumptions about internal states.


Behaviorism to id

Behaviorism to ID?

  • Outcomes  objectives  items

  • Outcomes as drivers for design

  • Small bites of outcomes, each to learned individually

  • Positive reinforcement  behavior

  • Ignore behavior to reduce it

  • Lots of practice (emitting of behavior)

  • Programmed instruction is ancient and honored behaviorist approach, and it still lives


Behavior modification

Behavior Modification

  • Focus on defined, tangible, target behaviors and how they are reinforced

    • Continuous reinforcers: all the time

    • Then ratio: every third time perhaps

    • Then random

  • Focus on the observable, with no attention to causes. Good if can manage the contingencies, but can’t always. Is it bribery?

  • Programs work for children for clsrm skills; work for adults for tardiness, smoking, to increase sales calls.

  • How might you use behavior mod to teach developmentally disabled youth to use the trolley?


Behavior modeling

Behavior Modeling

  • Presentation of a model and demonstration (clarity about optimals) w. skill practices

  • Based on social learning theory: we learn from imitating others

  • Goes right at the target behaviors associated with social and interpersonal problems-- lots of review and rehearsal, with progressively more realistic and complex situations

  • Confucious: “I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand”


Overview2

Overview

  • Behavioral Approaches

    • Behavior Modification

    • Behavior Modeling

  • Cognitive Approaches

    • Conditions of Learning

    • Component Display Theory

    • Advance Organizer

    • Constructivism


What is cognitivism

What is cognitivism ?

  • Focus on what goes on in people’s minds

  • Two schools of thought:

    • Expository: builds heavily on behaviorism, but augments with newer cognitive constructs, especially human info processing. Telling and talking are often an important part of an expository cognitive approach. Remember the think aloud I did about orientation? Mneumonics are another example.

    • Discovery: more focus on the learning process itself, less on outcomes. Interest in self direction and social interaction. How about this experience?


Overview3

Overview

  • Behavioral Approaches

    • Behavior Modification

    • Behavior Modeling

  • Cognitive Approaches

    • Conditions of Learning

    • Component Display Theory

    • Advance Organizer

    • Constructivism


Instructional designs theories into programs

Here are three expository programs….

  • Conditions of learning

  • Component display

  • Advance organizer


1 conditions of learning

1. Conditions of Learning

  • Predicated on both cognitive and behavioral antecedents, the assumption that different outcomes happen through different conditions

  • Domains of learning outcomes per Gagne

    • Verbal information: knowing that, facts, state caps

    • Intellectual skills: know how, classify, relate, deciding whether to write yourself or hire editor

    • Cognitive strategies: manage own thinking, create

    • Attitudes: choices as manifestation of attitudes

    • Motor skills: physical movements, fluency


Conditions of learning gagne s events of instruction

Conditions of Learning Gagne’s Events of Instruction

  • Gain attention

  • Inform learners abt the objective

  • Stimulate recall of prior learning

  • Present content

    Show, explain, demo, highlight distinctive aspects

  • Provide learning guidance

    Organize, structure, link, tips, job aids

  • Elicit performance

  • Provide feedback

  • Assess performance again

  • Enhance retention and transfer


2 component display theory

2. Component Display Theory

  • Like Gagne, strategies tied to outcomes

    • Focus on the cognitive

    • Examination of both the content type and the level of learner performance (use, remember, find)

  • Useful for generating design strategies, for building instruction to how to X or when to Y

  • 1/classify outcomes: fact, concept, procedure, or principle for the content AND remember, use or find

  • 2/assign strategies


Merrill s perf content matrix

Merrill’s perf/content matrix

Remember

Name the partsof the skin

FACT

CONCEPT

PROCEDURE

PRINCIPLE

Use

Find

In battlefield,treat burns

Explain the term,3rd degree burn

Identify whichtype of burn it is

State the stepsto dress a burn

Dress a burn, given the type

Improvise, ifnecessary matlsare missing

Describe whyburns can be life threatening

Treat/save under battleconditions

Determine implic of burn treatments


What use is cdt

What use is CDT?

  • How is it interesting?

  • How can you use it?


Overview4

Overview

  • Behavioral Approaches

    • Behavior Modification

    • Behavior Modeling

  • Cognitive Approaches

    • Conditions of Learning

    • Component Display Theory

    • Advance Organizer

    • Constructivism


3 advance organizer

3. Advance Organizer

  • Focus is on establishing a cognitive structure or scaffolding for learners

  • Much learning through presentation/lecture, with emphasis on organization and meaning

  • Works particularly well for verbal learning, such as product knowledge

  • Key strategies (David Ausubel)

    • Establish an idea or structure that depicts, explains how the material fits together

    • Use visual or verbal representations, such as outlines, stories, diagrams, charts….


This is an advance organizer

This is an advance organizer


Yup this is an advance organizer

Yup, this is an advance organizer

  • Cognitive Approaches

    • Conditions of Learning

    • Component Display Theory

    • Advance Organizer

    • Constructivism

      • Compared to objectivism

      • Cognitive constructivism

      • Socialcultural constructivism


Discovery via constructivist programs

Discovery via constructivist programs

  • Constructivist approaches, such as case based and problem based learning


Objectivism constructivism

Knowledge as objective reality

Situate in real world

Predefine the perspective

Emphasis is on gaining content knowledge and skills

We set objectives

Evaluate against objectives

Knowledge exists in the head

Strip down at first

Get it from multiple perspectives

Focus on developing thinking and learning skills

Objectives emerge

Urge indiv goals, authenticity===>

Objectivism Constructivism

[after Falance, in Medsker (2001)]


Cognitive sociocultural

Active cognitive reorganization

Cases, examination of worked examples

Focus on Grabinger’s REAL (real environm’ts, authentic learning)

Emphasis is on individually constructing knowledge

Acculturate into comm. of thought

Social, cultural

Focus on collaboration, interactions, culture, engagement

Emphasis in on working together, to construct group view

CognitiveSociocultural

[after Burton et al, in Jonassen (1996)]


Think about it

Think about it.

  • Let’s say you were charged with teaching pre-service teachers about technology, what it is and what it might mean in their classrooms.

  • How might constructivists see it differently than objectivists? How might a cognitive constructivist view it differently than a sociocultural constructivist? How would it influenceprograms that are delivered?


Overview5

Overview

  • Behavioral Approaches

    • Behavior Modification

    • Behavior Modeling

  • Cognitive Approaches

    • Conditions of Learning

    • Component Display Theory

    • Advance Organizer

    • Constructivism


Overview6

Overview

  • Humanistic Approaches

    • Cooperative Learning

    • Motivational Design

    • Adult Learning


Cooperative learning

Cooperative Learning

  • Focus on how people work with each other, on the skills and strategies associated with working in teams and groups. Interpersonal skills are critical to success.

  • Studies (Johnson & Johnson, 1989) have found many benefits to group work

  • Key strategies

    • Establish groups

    • Provide clear directions re processes and goal

    • Collaboration not competition


Overview7

Overview

  • Humanistic Approaches

    • Cooperative Learning

    • Motivational Design

    • Adult Learning


Motivational design

Motivational Design

  • John Keller’s ARCS (attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction) is not a stand- alone. Meant to augment other models.

  • Basis in expectancy value theory (Porter & Lawler, 1968): indivs are motivated when see worth and feel confidence!

  • Key strategies

    • A: perceptual and inquiry arousal, variability

    • R: show the relevance, match motives

    • C: link to prior, provide early successes

    • S: enable use and consequences


Overview8

Overview

  • Humanistic Approaches

    • Cooperative Learning

    • Motivational Design

    • Adult Learning


Adult learning

Adult Learning

  • Predicated on the work of Malcom Knowles

  • Tremendous respect for what individuals bring to the learning table

  • Typically

    • Problem based, not subject matter oriented

    • Relies upon a performance analysis and needs assessment

    • Links to prior successes and key concerns

    • Involves them in their own learning

    • Honors action, interaction, teams


Visit your assigned site use what we ve talked about to identify theoretical underpinnings

Visit your assigned site-- use what we’ve talked about to identify theoretical underpinnings

  • http://www.froguts.comdissect and learn about frogs; and

  • http://elearning.hbsp.org/demos/negotiator/source/negotiation.html learn to negotiate

  • http://www.quia.com/cb/8111.htmlEnglish irregular verbs


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