GOSSIP: a vertex detector combining a thin gas
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GOSSIP: a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a Si pixel readout. Harry van der Graaf, NIKHEF, Amsterdam TIME Workshop, Zürich, Oct 6, 2005. 1906: Geiger tube gaseous detector ionisation: primary electrons (central) anode wire electron multiplication.

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GOSSIP: a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a Si pixel readout

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Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

GOSSIP: a vertex detector combining a thin gas

layer as signal generator with a Si pixel readout

Harry van der Graaf, NIKHEF, Amsterdam

TIME Workshop, Zürich, Oct 6, 2005


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

1906: Geiger tube

gaseous detector

ionisation: primary electrons

(central) anode wire

electron multiplication


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

Geiger-Muller tube

Proportional tube

Multi Wire Proportional Chamber

Drift Chamber

Time Projection Chamber

MicroStripGasChamber (Oed 1988)

1995 Micromegas (Charpak & Giomataris)

1996 GEM (F. Sauli)

Si

replaces

gas


Micro patterned gaseous detectors

Micro Patterned Gaseous Detectors

GEM

  • High field created by Gas Gain Grids

  • Most popular: GEM & Micromegas

Micromegas

improved granularity : wire chambers react on COG of many electron clouds/clusters


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

Time Projection Chamber (TPC): 2D/3D Drift Chamber

The Ultimate Wire (drift) Chamber

track of

charged

particle

E-field

(and B-field)

Wire plane

Wire Plane

+

Readout Pads

Pad plane


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

Problem

With wires: measure charge distribution over cathode pads:

c.o.g. is a good measure for track position;

With GEMs or Micromegas: narrow charge distribution

(only electron movement)

avalanche

GEM

wire

Micromegas

Cathode pads

Solutions:- cover pads with resisitive layer

- ‘Chevron’ pads

- many small pads: pixels!


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

  • The MediPix2 pixel CMOS chip

  • 256 x 256 pixels

  • pixel pitch: 55 x 55 μm2

  • Within each pixel:

    • preamp + shaper + discr

    • 14-bits counter

    • discr. thresholds

  • Developed by MediPix

  • Consortium, CERN

We apply the ‘naked’ MediPix2 chip

without X-ray convertor!


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

MediPix2 & Micromegas

55Fe

Cathode (drift) plane

Drift space: 15 mm

Micromegas

Baseplate

MediPix2 pixel sensor

Brass spacer block

Printed circuit board

Aluminum base plate

Very strong E-field above (CMOS) MediPix!


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

He/Isobutane

80/20

Modified MediPix

δ-ray!

Efficiency for

detecting single

electrons:

< 95 %


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

Integrate GEM/Micromegas and pixel sensor:

InGrid

‘GEM’

‘Micromegas’

By ‘wafer post processing’


Ingrid vs micromegas

Micromegas

Electroforming tech.

Large areas

Large pillar Ø (250 µm)

Hybrid detector

Manual mounting

InGrid

Micro-electronic tech.

Wafer scale areas

Minimum pillar Ø (30 µm)

Integrated detector

Compact / Mass producible

All geometric parameters accurately controlled

Gap, Holes, Supporting structures

InGrid VS Micromegas


Processing ingrids

Processing InGrids

Strips Litho.

50 µm SU8

UV Exposure

Holes Litho.

0.8 µm Al

Suspended membrane 50 µm above the wafer

Development


Prototypes

Prototypes

Hex / Pillars

19 different fields of 15 mm Ø

2 bonding pads / fields

Square / Pillars

Square / Walls

Square / Pillars


Experimental setup

Experimental Setup

55Fe collimated source

Gas sealed chamber

Grid to HV

Cathode to HV

Anode to ground

Connectors to 10 MΩ resistors in series with electrodes


Energy resolution in argon isoc 4 h 10 80 20

Energy resolution in Argon IsoC4H10 80/20

  • Observation of two lines:

    • Kα @ 5.9 keV

    • Kβ @ 6.4 keV

  • FWHM of the Kα distribution

    • 16.7 %

  • Gain fluctuations

    • < 5%

Very good energy resolution:

Very precise dimensions d < 0.1 μm


Gains in argon

Gains in Argon

Argon / CO2 mixtures offers good ageing properties (GOSSIP gas)

Gain of 104 reachable in Argon CO2 80/20

Ageing studies in a reasonable amount of time (intense X-rays source)


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

  • Other applications of GridPix:

  • μ-TPC

  • Transition Radiation Detectors

  • GOSSIP: tracker for intense radiation environment


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

MIP

MIP

InGrid

Cathode foil

CMOS pixel array

CMOS chip

‘slimmed’ to 30 μm

Drift gap: 1 mm

Max drift time: 16 ns

GOSSIP: Gas On Slimmed SIlicon Pixels


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

  • Essentials of GOSSIP:

  • Generate charge signal in gas instead of Si (e-/ions versus e-/holes)

  • Amplify # electrons in gas (electron avalanche versus FET preamps)

  • Then:

  • No radiation damage in depletion layer or pixel preamp FETs

  • No power dissipation of preamps

  • No detector bias current

  • Ultralight detection layer (Si foil)

  • 1 mm gas layer + 20 μm avalanche gap + CMOS (almost digital!) chip

  • After all: it is a TPC with 1 mm drift length (parallax error!)

Max. drift length: 1 mm

Max. drift time: 16 ns

Resolution: 0.1 mm  1.6 ns


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

GOSSIP

Ageing *

Efficiency

Position resolution

Rate effects *

Radiation hardness

HV breakdowns *

Power dissipation

Material budget


Aging test remember msgcs

Aging test (remember MSGCs….!)

  • Rate

  • Current

  • Deposits

Chamber: Same as GridPix, but with polished Al plate as anode instead of MediPix


Rate effects

Rate effects

Anode current (gas gain) due to 55Fe quanta calibrated with gas gain G and X-ray intensity Nx:

Ianode = G . Nx . 220 e- . qe

Irradiation with X-ray tube:

No deviation from current proportionality was observed

up to 44 MHz of 8 keV X-ray quanta on a detector surface

of 100 mm2.


Aging test

Aging test

Half the GridPix was irradiated with 8 keV X-rays.

Gas: normal Ar/Methane 90/10, many plastics included.

After 0.3 Coulomb/mm2, deposit of carbon polymer on anode is clearly visible. Micromegas is clean (?!)

Reduced aging of a GridPix detector versus wire chambers:

  • ratio of anode surface: thin wire surface versus anode plane (~20x)

  • low gas gain due to fast signal and low source capacity (~20x)

  • total factor: 400x

  • So: no issue for ILC-TPC

  • So: application as GOSSIP vertex detector in Super LHC seems feasible


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

HV breakdowns

1) High-resistive layer

3) ‘massive’ pads

2) High-resistive layer

Apply RPC principles to limit charge amplitudes


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

  • Gas instead of Si vertex detector:

  • Pro:

  • no radiation damage in sensor

  • modest pixel input circuitry: source capacity of only 30 fF

  • no bias current, no dark current (in absence of HV breakdowns..!)

  • requires (almost) only digital CMOS readout chip

  • low detector material budget

  • Typical: Si foil. New mechanical concepts:

  • self-supporting pressurised co-centric balloons

  • low power dissipation

  • (12”) CMOS wafer 

    • no bump bonding

    • ‘simple’ assembly

  • operates at room temperature

  • less sensitive for X-ray background

  • 3D track info per layer

  • Con:

  • Gas chamber ageing: not well-known process

  • Needs gas flow (but can be used for cooling….)


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

Next

InGrid

Study the geometry influence on Resolution, Gain, Ion back flow

Optimise detector geometry

Protect the chip from discharges

High resistive grid, or separated grid segments

ApplyInGrid on MediPix2, (TimePix!), PSI 46 pixel chips

GridPix (TPC for ILC)

TimePix: modify MediPix 2 chip: TDC clock over pixel matrix

EUDET (Nikhef-Saclay-Freiburg et al) granted $$$ !

GOSSIP

repeat aging test with Ar/CO2

Gossipo: MPW submit for low-noise preamp (Cs = 30 fF)

Test with PSI 46 FE pixel chip equipped with InGrid


Gossip a vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a si pixel readout

NIKHEFHarry van der Graaf

Jan Timmermans

Jan Visschers

Maximilien Chefdeville

Sipho van der Putten

Arno Aarts

Saclay CEA DAPNIAPaul Colas

Yannis Giomataris

Univ. Twente/Mesa+Jurriaan Schmitz

Cora Salm

Sander Smits

CERNErik Heine

Medipix Consortium

Thanks to:

Wim Gotink

Joop Rovenkamp

Gossip: the electronic bubble chamber


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