GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD. by Mary Figueredo Carlos Guzman Carmen Huzum Agnes Pawelkowska. What is GM Plant?. A GM plant contains a gene or genes which have been artificially inserted instead of the plant acquiring them through pollination. GM CROPS Source:Colorado State University.
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-GM crops offer prospects of reducing input costs or making planting more flexible
-technology allows farmers to reduce their use of chemical pesticides (more environment – friendly practices)
-GM food improves freshness and taste
-GM food enriches nutrition
-GM food decreases allergencity and lowers fat content
-technology holds promise for enhancing agricultural productivity and for improving nutrition In developing countries
- distribution problem can be resolved by graining GM crops in poor countries (overcome the world hunger).
-a biotechnology and agricultural trade program ,aimed at barriers to the export of the US products through biotechnology (section 3209)
-competitive grants for biotechnology risk assessment research (section 7210)
-agricultural biotechnology research and and development for developing countries (section 7505)
-a program of public education on the use of biotechnology in producing food for human consumption (section 10802)
-the US Department of Agriculture(USDA)
-Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)
-the Food and Drug Administration(FDA)
------potential environmental impact
- domination of world food production by a few companies
-increasing dependence on industrialized nation by developing countries
-Member State, Scientific Committees, Commission, Council of Ministers
-until 1998 18 GMOs applications have authorized in the EU;
2 cases still not implemented by the Member State.
-since Oct.1998, no further authorization
- Food safety, technical barriers to trade, and intellectual property rights protection.
- Biodiversity and non-scientific concerns.
An “Advanced Informed Agreement (AIA)” between exporting country and importing country is require for living GM organisms.
An importing country may refuse the GM shipment if there are undue risks identified through a science-based risk assessment.
Countries may consider “socio-economic factors” in their reviews.
A “precautionary principle”may be applied to block GM imports which could be harmful to biological diversity without complete scientific certainty.The Biosafety Protocol (BSP) Provides that
-Establishes rules and procedures to ensure that measures address health concerns.
- Establishes rules and procedures to develop standards, technical regulations, and assessment procedures
-Domestic regulatory regimes pertaining to intellectual property must provide protection to goods produced using biotechnology.