Phytochemicals and genetically modified food
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Phytochemicals and Genetically Modified Food. Unit 21. Phytochemicals. People who eat lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and other plant foods are less likely to develop many health problems Plants contain thousands of potentially beneficial substances called phytochemicals. Key Terms.

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Phytochemicals and genetically modified food

Phytochemicals andGenetically Modified Food

Unit 21


Phytochemicals

Phytochemicals

  • People who eat lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and other plant foods are less likely to develop many health problems

  • Plants contain thousands of potentially beneficial substances called phytochemicals


Key terms

Key Terms

  • Phytochemicals

    • Chemical substances in plants which likely perform important functions in the body

  • Zoochemicals

    • Chemical substances in animal foods which likely perform important functions in the body


Nutrition superstars

Nutrition Superstars


Some phytochemicals

Some Phytochemicals


Characteristics of phytochemicals

Characteristics of Phytochemicals

  • Functions in plants:

    • Provide color and flavor

    • Protect from insects, microbes, oxidation

    • Used in energy processes, hormones

  • Not all phytochemicals are healthful

    • Naturally occurring toxins


Phytochemicals and health

Phytochemicals and Health

  • Diets rich in phytochemicals protect against many diseases

    • Heart disease, certain cancers, infectious diseases, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, stroke, hypertension, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and other disorders


Age related macular degeneration

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

  • Age-related macular degeneration

    • Eye damage caused by oxidation of the macula (central portion of eye responsible for detail)

    • Leading cause of blindness in adults over 65

    • Prevented by carotenoids (antioxidants)


Cataracts

Cataracts

  • Cataracts

    • Complete or partial clouding of the lens of the eye


Phytochemicals work in groups

Phytochemicals Work in Groups

  • Most (if not all) phytochemicals work together when consumed at the same time

  • Pills containing individual phytochemicals don’t have the same effect


Beta carotene studies

Beta-Carotene Studies

  • Smokers with high beta carotene levels from fruits and vegetables had low cancer rates

  • Smokers who took beta carotene supplements had higher cancer rates

  • Conclusion: A combination of chemicals in plant foods reduced cancer


Plants beat pills

Plants Beat Pills


Vegetable extracts and essences

It would take 100 pills to get the same amount of just one phytochemical (sulforaphane) in one serving of cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli

Vegetable Extracts and Essences


Key terms1

Key Terms

  • Cruciferous vegetables

    • Sulfur-containing vegetables whose outer leaves form a cross (crucifix)

    • Includes broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, mustard, collard greens, kale, bok choy, kohlrabi, turnips, broccoflower, and watercress


How do phytochemicals work

How Do Phytochemicals Work?

  • Phytochemicals can:

    • Act as hormone-inhibiting substances to prevent initiation of cancer

    • Act as antioxidants that prevent and repair damage due to oxidation

    • Neutralize enzymes that promote cancer

    • Modify utilization of cholesterol

    • Decrease formation of blood clots


Phytochemicals1

Phytochemicals


Phytochemicals2

Phytochemicals


Top antioxidants

Bright-colored pigments are strong antioxidants

Zeaxanthin

Anthocyanin

Lycopene

Top Antioxidants


Naturally occurring food toxins

Solanine

In green potatoes

Oxalic acid

In dark green, leafy vegetables

Cyanide

In cassava

Naturally-Occurring Food Toxins


Naturally occurring food toxins1

Naturally-Occurring Food Toxins

  • Ackee fruit

    • Part edible, part deadly poison


Caffeine

Caffeine is a habit-forming phytochemical

Withdrawal can cause headaches

Caffeine


Genetically modified gm foods

Genetically Modified (GM) Foods

  • Genetic engineering

    • Process of biotechnology used to modify the composition of a food by altering its genetic makeup – includes transfer of genes from one species to another

    • Food products produced are sometimes called GM or GMOs (genetically modified organisms)


Genetic modification of plants

Genetic Modification of Plants


Genetic modification of animals

Genetic Modification of Animals

  • Biotechnology has also genetically engineered animals used for food

    • Atlantic salmon, pigs, cattle, chickens

  • Animal products from cloned animals make up a small fraction of meat sales


Are gm foods safe

Are GM Foods Safe?

  • Over 60% of processed foods contain GM ingredients

    • 80% of soybeans, 30% of corn are GM

    • Tomatoes, squash, cantaloupe, potatoes

  • Organic produce is not GM


Gm free foods

GM-Free Foods


Benefits and concerns of gm foods

Benefits and Concerns of GM Foods


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