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Basic Chemistry I. Vladimíra Kvasnicová. Composition of Matter. organic / inorganic compound = a substance formed by chemical reaction; it consists of elements in fixed proportions

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basic chemistry i

Basic Chemistry I

Vladimíra Kvasnicová

composition of matter
Composition of Matter
  • organic / inorganic
    • compound = a substance formed by chemical reaction;it consists of elements in fixed proportions
    • element = a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances; it consists of atoms with a same number of protons (number of neutrons may vary)


    • atom = the smallest part of an element that can exist chemically
    • molecule = the smallest part of a chemical compoundthat can take part in chemical reaction
composition of matter1
Composition of Matter

structure of atom

  • nucleus: protons (p+) + neutrons (n0)
  • „cloud“ of electrons (e-)
  • mass number A (= nucleon number)
  • proton number Z (= atomic number)
  • neutron number N
  • electroneutrality
  • nuclide
  • isotopes
composition of matter2
inorganic mater

oxygen (O) 50%

silicon (Si) 25%

aluminium (Al) 7%

iron (Fe) 5%

calcium (Ca) 3%


sodium (Na)

potassium (K)

magnesium (Mg)

hydrogen (H)

titanium (Ti) 0,6%

organic mater

„compounds of carbon“

C, O, H, N

carbon (C)

oxygen (O)

hydrogen (H)

nitrogen (N)

phosphorus (P)

sulfur (S)

Composition of Matter
  • air, blood plasma
  • isotopes = atoms having the same protonnumber but different mass number(isotopes of carbon: 12C, 13C, 14C)
  • element= a substance composed of atoms havingthe same protonnumber(element consists of various isotopes)
  • nuclide = a substance composed of atoms havingthe same proton and mass numbers(substance containing only 12C = nuclide called carbon „12“)
  • atom / molecule / ion(monoatomic, polyatomic - binary, ternary)
  • nuclide: AZX
  • make groups of:

a) isotopes

b) the same elements

c) the same nuclides

  • nuclide: AZX
  • make groups of:

a) isotopes: iodine, uranium

b) elements: iodine, uranium, radon

c) the same nuclides: 3, 8

Calculate number of neutrons of 127I

n0 = 74


symbols and names of elements

use flash cards


The figure is found at 2007)

composition of matter3
Composition of Matter

structure of atom – arrangement of electrons

  • four quantum numbers

orbital = a region of space in which an electron is most likely to be found

  • principal shells → energy
  • subshells → shape of orbitals
  • degenerate orbitals → space orientation
  • spin (rotation) of electrons
shapes of orbitals1






Shapes of orbitals
composition of matter4
Composition of Matter

structure of atom – arrangement of electrons

  • Pauli´s exclusion principle= no two electrons in the atom can have the same set of quantum numbers
  • Hund´s rule= electron will not enter an orbital containing another electron if an empty orbital of the same energy is available

The figure is found at 2007)

composition of matter5
Composition of Matter

structure of atom – arrangement of electrons

  • ground / excitated state
  • valence electrons
  • radicals
  • electronegativity = a measure of the ability of an atom in a molecule to draw bonding electrons to itself
  • chemical bonds

the arrow showes increase of electronegativity

The figure is found at 2007)

inorganic compounds
Inorganic Compounds

Oxides anion: O-II

  • acid-forming: nonmetal / oxygen
    • use multiple prefixes (mono, di, tri,...)
  • base-forming: metal / oxygen
    • use sufixes –ous / -ic or (oxidation state)
  • amphoteric

MnO2, N2O, BaO, CO, K2O, SO2, FeO, Cu2O, CaO

inorganic compounds1
Inorganic Compounds

Peroxides anion: O2-2 O-I

  • s1 elements (hydrogen and alkali metals): M2O2
  • s2 elements (alkali earth metals): MO2

sodium peroxide magnesium peroxide

barium peroxide potassium peroxide

hydrogen peroxide lithium peroxide

inorganic compounds2
Inorganic Compounds

Hydroxides anion: (OH)-1

  • basic properties (pH > 7)
  • strong or weak hydroxides
  • metal / hydroxide anion
    • use sufixes –ous / -ic or (oxidation state)
  • ammonium / hydroxide anion

NaOH, LiOH, NH4OH, Fe(OH)3, Cu(OH)2, Ca(OH)2

inorganic compounds3
Inorganic Compounds

Acidscation: H+(pH < 7)

1) oxygen free acids

hydro-...................-ic acid

HF, HCl, HBr, HI, H2S, HCN (in aqueous solutions)


  • monoprotic / diprotic acids
inorganic compounds4
Inorganic Compounds

Acidscation: H+

2) oxoacids

  • the highest oxidative state per-.....-ic acid
  • higher (or only) oxidative state -ic acid
  • lower oxidative state -ous acid
  • the lowest oxidative state hypo-...-ous acid


-ic acid → -ate

-ous acid→ -ite

inorganic compounds5
Inorganic Compounds


are formed by neutralization:

acid + hydroxide → salt + water

cation: metal or NH4+ derived from the hydroxide(= cation of the hydroxide)

anion:oxygen-free or polyatomic anionderived from the acid (= anion of the acid)

inorganic compounds6
Inorganic Compounds

Make groups of compounds:

Na2O, HCl, CO2, Na2O2, Ca(OH)2, KClO, HCN, HNO2,

H2S, H2O2, BaO2, PbO2, H2SO3, KOH, MgSO4, NaF,

NH4HCO3, HI, Al(OH)3, HIO4, CdS, MgO2, NaH2PO4

? oxides hydroxides peroxides acids salts