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Basic Chemistry I. Vladimíra Kvasnicová. Composition of Matter. organic / inorganic compound = a substance formed by chemical reaction; it consists of elements in fixed proportions

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basic chemistry i

Basic Chemistry I

Vladimíra Kvasnicová

composition of matter
Composition of Matter
  • organic / inorganic
    • compound = a substance formed by chemical reaction;it consists of elements in fixed proportions
    • element = a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances; it consists of atoms with a same number of protons (number of neutrons may vary)

---------------------------------------------------------------

    • atom = the smallest part of an element that can exist chemically
    • molecule = the smallest part of a chemical compoundthat can take part in chemical reaction
composition of matter1
Composition of Matter

structure of atom

  • nucleus: protons (p+) + neutrons (n0)
  • „cloud“ of electrons (e-)
  • mass number A (= nucleon number)
  • proton number Z (= atomic number)
  • neutron number N
  • electroneutrality
  • nuclide
  • isotopes
composition of matter2
inorganic mater

oxygen (O) 50%

silicon (Si) 25%

aluminium (Al) 7%

iron (Fe) 5%

calcium (Ca) 3%

90%

sodium (Na)

potassium (K)

magnesium (Mg)

hydrogen (H)

titanium (Ti) 0,6%

organic mater

„compounds of carbon“

C, O, H, N

carbon (C)

oxygen (O)

hydrogen (H)

nitrogen (N)

phosphorus (P)

sulfur (S)

Composition of Matter
  • air, blood plasma
distinguish
Distinguish
  • isotopes = atoms having the same protonnumber but different mass number(isotopes of carbon: 12C, 13C, 14C)
  • element= a substance composed of atoms havingthe same protonnumber(element consists of various isotopes)
  • nuclide = a substance composed of atoms havingthe same proton and mass numbers(substance containing only 12C = nuclide called carbon „12“)
  • atom / molecule / ion(monoatomic, polyatomic - binary, ternary)
exercise
Exercise
  • nuclide: AZX
  • make groups of:

a) isotopes

b) the same elements

c) the same nuclides

exercise1
Exercise
  • nuclide: AZX
  • make groups of:

a) isotopes: iodine, uranium

b) elements: iodine, uranium, radon

c) the same nuclides: 3, 8

Calculate number of neutrons of 127I

n0 = 74

memorize
Memorize

symbols and names of elements

use flash cards

slide9

The figure is found at http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif(September 2007)

composition of matter3
Composition of Matter

structure of atom – arrangement of electrons

  • four quantum numbers

orbital = a region of space in which an electron is most likely to be found

  • principal shells → energy
  • subshells → shape of orbitals
  • degenerate orbitals → space orientation
  • spin (rotation) of electrons
shapes of orbitals1

dyz

dxy

dzx

dx2–y2

dz2

Shapes of orbitals
composition of matter4
Composition of Matter

structure of atom – arrangement of electrons

  • Pauli´s exclusion principle= no two electrons in the atom can have the same set of quantum numbers
  • Hund´s rule= electron will not enter an orbital containing another electron if an empty orbital of the same energy is available
slide16

The figure is found at http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif(September 2007)

composition of matter5
Composition of Matter

structure of atom – arrangement of electrons

  • ground / excitated state
  • valence electrons
  • radicals
  • electronegativity = a measure of the ability of an atom in a molecule to draw bonding electrons to itself
  • chemical bonds
slide18

the arrow showes increase of electronegativity

The figure is found at http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif(September 2007)

inorganic compounds
Inorganic Compounds

Oxides anion: O-II

  • acid-forming: nonmetal / oxygen
    • use multiple prefixes (mono, di, tri,...)
  • base-forming: metal / oxygen
    • use sufixes –ous / -ic or (oxidation state)
  • amphoteric

MnO2, N2O, BaO, CO, K2O, SO2, FeO, Cu2O, CaO

inorganic compounds1
Inorganic Compounds

Peroxides anion: O2-2 O-I

  • s1 elements (hydrogen and alkali metals): M2O2
  • s2 elements (alkali earth metals): MO2

sodium peroxide magnesium peroxide

barium peroxide potassium peroxide

hydrogen peroxide lithium peroxide

inorganic compounds2
Inorganic Compounds

Hydroxides anion: (OH)-1

  • basic properties (pH > 7)
  • strong or weak hydroxides
  • metal / hydroxide anion
    • use sufixes –ous / -ic or (oxidation state)
  • ammonium / hydroxide anion

NaOH, LiOH, NH4OH, Fe(OH)3, Cu(OH)2, Ca(OH)2

inorganic compounds3
Inorganic Compounds

Acidscation: H+(pH < 7)

1) oxygen free acids

hydro-...................-ic acid

HF, HCl, HBr, HI, H2S, HCN (in aqueous solutions)

anion:-ide

  • monoprotic / diprotic acids
inorganic compounds4
Inorganic Compounds

Acidscation: H+

2) oxoacids

  • the highest oxidative state per-.....-ic acid
  • higher (or only) oxidative state -ic acid
  • lower oxidative state -ous acid
  • the lowest oxidative state hypo-...-ous acid

anion:

-ic acid → -ate

-ous acid→ -ite

inorganic compounds5
Inorganic Compounds

Salts

are formed by neutralization:

acid + hydroxide → salt + water

cation: metal or NH4+ derived from the hydroxide(= cation of the hydroxide)

anion:oxygen-free or polyatomic anionderived from the acid (= anion of the acid)

inorganic compounds6
Inorganic Compounds

Make groups of compounds:

Na2O, HCl, CO2, Na2O2, Ca(OH)2, KClO, HCN, HNO2,

H2S, H2O2, BaO2, PbO2, H2SO3, KOH, MgSO4, NaF,

NH4HCO3, HI, Al(OH)3, HIO4, CdS, MgO2, NaH2PO4

? oxides hydroxides peroxides acids salts

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