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Thucydides, Pericles & Classical Oration. Thucydides. 460 B.C.- 404 B.C. Important military magistrate in the Peloponnesian War Failed to protect Amphipolis , an important Athenian colony, from a Spartan attack and was sent to trial for this military failure

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Thucydides
Thucydides

  • 460 B.C.- 404 B.C.

  • Important military magistrate in the Peloponnesian War

  • Failed to protect Amphipolis, an important Athenian colony, from a Spartan attack and was sent to trial for this military failure

  • Trial ended with Thucydides being exiled


Thucydides1
Thucydides

  • While exiled, he watched the war from afar

    • Chronicles the events that took place

    • Spoke with Athenians and Spartans

  • Wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War, based on what he observed during that time.

    • Viewed as one of the greatest historians, due to his objective, scientific approach to his work


Thucydides2
Thucydides

  • Thucydides was interest in the psychology of war and human behavior in war time.

    • History would be understood by studying human behavior

  • Many of the speeches included within his writing serve to highlight the motives and ambitions of both Sparta and Athens.

    • Recorded speeches by memory, filled in missing information with what he believed the speakers would have said


Pericles funeral oration
Pericles’ Funeral Oration

  • One of the speeches included in Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War

  • Speech presents a glowing account of Athenian democracy, but does not present a complete picture of its imperialistic policies


Classical oration
Classical Oration

  • Oration- The art of persuasion. Formal speech that appeals to the emotions of the audience. The purpose is to inspire listeners and incite them to action, was a major interest in Classical times.


Classical oration1
Classical Oration

  • Seven parts of classical oration

    • The opening

    • The narration

    • The exposition

    • The proposition to clarify the points

    • A confirmation to address the arguments for and against

    • The refutation

    • The conclusion


Classical oration2
Classical Oration

  • The Opening

    • Used to get the attention of the audience

    • Speaker discloses the topic to be discussed as well as their position on the matter

    • Presents thesis for argument


Classical oration3
Classical Oration

  • The Narration

    • Recital of objective facts

    • Brief history of problem, situation or topic

    • Should be neutral and matter-of-fact so the speaker gains the trust of the audience


Classical oration4
Classical Oration

  • The Exposition

    • Definition of terms to be explained or issues to be proven.


Classical oration5
Classical Oration

  • The Proposition

    • Clarifies the points to be covered and states exactly what is to be proven

    • Sometimes included in the Exposition


Classical oration6
Classical Oration

  • Confirmation to address the arguments for and against the proposition

    • Address the other side


Classical oration7
Classical Oration

  • The Refutation

    • Refutes the opposing argument

    • The speaker must show that he is well informed, know the opposite points of view, but have excellent reason for not believing them.

    • Can be a personal appeal of the speaker (ethos), emotion (pathos) or logic (logos).


Classical oration8
Classical Oration

  • The Conclusion

    • Summarizes the argument and stirs the audience

    • Arouses sympathy

    • Moves audience to action

    • Aristotle says the conclusion has four tasks:

      • Leave the audience well-disposed to the speaker and ill-disposed to the opponent

      • Magnify speaker’s points

      • Leave audience in proper mood

      • Summarize main points of argument


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