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Theories of Crime & Deviance. Demonology Classical & Neo-Classical Theory Positivism & the Ecological Approach Biological Theories Psychological Approaches Sociological Approaches. Demonology. Crime caused by demonic activity Offender to be purged of evil presence. Classical Theory.

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Theories of crime deviance l.jpg
Theories of Crime & Deviance

  • Demonology

  • Classical & Neo-Classical Theory

  • Positivism & the Ecological Approach

  • Biological Theories

  • Psychological Approaches

  • Sociological Approaches


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Demonology

  • Crime caused by demonic activity

  • Offender to be purged of evil presence


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Classical Theory

  • Origin: about 1764

  • Founders: Cesare Beccaria, Jeremy Bentham

  • Based on ‘hedonistic calculus’

  • Punishment should fit the crime

  • Punishment should be applied equally


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Neo-Classical Theory

  • Introduced idea of mitigating factors

  • Age & situational context taken into account


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Positivism & the Ecological Approach

  • Positivism – emphasizes measuring, accumulating & assessing data

  • Ecological approach identified relationships between criminality and geographical & social factors


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Biological Approaches

  • Core ideas:

  • Biological and mental traits make some people crime-prone.

  • These traits are inherited and present at birth.

  • Mental and physical degeneracies are the cause of crime.


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Lombroso & Biological Atavism

  • Study of inmates

  • Physical characteristics of inmates differ from law-abiding citizens

  • Problems with atavism


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Sheldon & Somatatyping

  • Temperament affected by body type

  • Endomorph

  • Ectomorph

  • mesomorph


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XYY THEORY

  • Based on studies of inmates

  • “super-male”

  • Problems with xyy theory


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Genetic Predispositions

  • Some individuals predisposed to:

  • Alcoholism

  • Suicide

  • Mental illness

  • Other deviant and criminal behavior


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Biological Roots of Criminal Behaviour

  • Chemical and Environmental Precursors

  • *eating habits, vitamin deficiencies, blood

  • sugar levels

  • * Dan White and the Twinkie Defence”

  • * Robert Parsons and the “sugar blackout' defence

  • Hormones and Criminality

  • Testosterone, pre-menstrual syndrome

  • Christine English and Dr. Geraldine Richeter


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Psychological approaches

  • Focus on the individual (cognitive, behavioral, neurological, developmental)

  • Examples:

  • psychoanalytic theory

  • Psychopathy


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The Psychopath

  • Lack empathy and guilt

  • Highly manipulative

  • Emotionally shallow

  • Often outwardly charming

  • History of violence & abuse

  • Abnormal physiological responses to stressors


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Sociological Approaches

  • Micro sociology emphasizes social processes

  • Example: learning the symbols of a culture/subculture

  • Macrosociology emphasizes social structures

  • Example: class inequalities cause crime


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