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Classical Swine Fever . Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine Jeffrey Musser, DVM, PhD, DABVP Suzanne Burnham, DVM. Special thanks to:.

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Classical swine fever l.jpg
Classical Swine Fever

Texas A&M University

College of Veterinary Medicine

Jeffrey Musser, DVM, PhD, DABVP

Suzanne Burnham, DVM

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


Special thanks to l.jpg
Special thanks to:

  • The staff at the Plum Island Animal Diagnostic Center for sharing their images and presentations for all veterinarians to see on this website.

  • And to Dr Corrie Brown for sharing her presentations as well.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Classical Swine Fever

Classical Swine Fever is also called

Hog Cholera

“The most typical feature of CSF:

it is so atypical.”

Dr Bill White

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Classical Swine Fever

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Classical Swine Fever

CSF is a highly contagious viral disease of swine.

Mortality varies from almost zero to 100%.

Only the domestic pig and wild boar are susceptible naturally.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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“Hog cholera, also known as swine fever,

is a disease native to America. It is highly

contagious and its prevalence led to the

first notice of an animal disease by the

federal government in 1860.”

http://www.lib.iastate.edu/spcl/manuscripts/MS389.html

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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http://www.extension.umn.edu/administrative/information/components/crisis01.htmlhttp://www.extension.umn.edu/administrative/information/components/crisis01.html

Hog Cholera epidemic in Minnesota in 1913

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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  • 1976 Last US outbreakhttp://www.extension.umn.edu/administrative/information/components/crisis01.html

  • 1978 US declared “Hog Cholera” free

http://www.colvet.es/infovet/may99/ganaderia.htm

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Breeding sows infected by low virulent strains usually abort,

…but may produce ‘late onset’ piglets that shed virus for 6-12 months before dying.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Classical Swine Fever abort,

…can survive for months

in refrigerated meat

and for years

in frozen meat

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Many Expressions abort,

  • Occurs in acute, subacute, chronic, persistent (‘late onset’) or inapparent forms.

  • Clinical forms closely match virulence of the viral strain and susceptibility (age) of the pig.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Classical Swine Fever abort,

  • Etiology

  • Host range

  • Incubation

  • Clinical signs

  • Transmission

  • Diagnosis

  • Differential Diagnosis

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Etiology abort,

  • Only one serotype

  • Lipid enveloped virus

  • Virus family Flaviviridae,

    Virus genus Pestivirus

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Etiology abort,

  • Related Pestiviruses:

    • Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD)

    • Border Disease Virus of Sheep, Reindeer and Giraffe

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Host Range abort,

http://www.krykiet.com/polish_wildlife.htm

Domestic swine and European wild boar

are the only natural reservoir of

classical swine fever virus

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Host Range abort,

Collared Peccary is only mildly susceptible.

aka Javelina

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Incubation abort,

  • 3-4 days average, 3-15 days range depending on strain, route and dose

  • 2-14 days (O.I.E.)

  • The Severe Acute form:

    2-6 days incubation; death at 10-20 days post infection

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Syndromes abort,

Virulence, immune status, age, breed, and pregnancy figure in the clinical picture.

  • Highly virulent strains: prevalent decades ago - causes Peracute and Classic Acute disease

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Syndromes abort,

  • Moderately virulent strains: prevalent today - causes Subacute Disease

  • Low virulent strains:

    prevalent today - causes Chronic Disease and Carrier Sow Syndrome/Persistent Infection

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Syndromes abort,

  • Seroconversion only after 2-3 weeks

    • CSF virus is immunosuppressive like BVD in cattle

  • Cellular tropism of virus

    • Endothelial, lymphoreticular, macrophages, some epithelial

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Acute Disease abort, (Classic Disease)

Mortality: approaches 100%.

Viral shedding: 10-20 days until antibodies

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Acute Disease abort,

Clinical Signs

High Fever: 106-108oF (>41oC)

Depression

Conjunctivitis

Constipation, then Diarrhea

Skin hemorrhages/Cyanosis

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Acute Disease abort,

Pile up for warmth

Anorexic and gaunt

Staggering gait

Convulsions

Abortion

Death 10-20 days post infection

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Acute Disease abort,

  • Pathology

    • Severe tonsilitis

    • Severe leukopenia

    • Hemorrhagic swollen lymph nodes

    • Hemorrhages renal cortex

    • Petechiation of the bladder, larynx, epiglottis, heart, intestinal mucosa, skin

    • Splenic infarcts

    • Necrotic gastroenteritis

    • Encephalitis

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Subacute Disease abort,

Mortality: reduced

Viral shedding: until death.

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Subacute Disease abort,

Clinical signs with subacute disease

are similar to acute disease,

but considerably less severe.

*As with Acute CSF, the disease is clinically and pathologically consistent with a generalized septicemia

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Fever for 2-3 weeks abort,

105-106oF

(>41oC)

Death within 30 days post infection

Subacute Disease

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Long term carriers of virus in tissues: lymph nodes, lung, spleen.

Mortality: High; Invariably die in 1-3 months

Viral Shedding: May shed virus for months

Chronic Disease

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Low virulent strain or infection of vaccinated herd. spleen.

Three clinical phases:

Initial: resembles Subacute

Fever

Anorexia

Depression

Leukopenia

Second: improve, look ~normal

Final: ‘runts’ with ‘Initial’ Phase signs.

Chronic Disease

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Button ulcers in cecum and colon (caused by bacteria) spleen.

Calcification rib cartilage

Glomerulonephritis

Lesions

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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‘Carrier Sow Syndrome’ spleen.

Mortality: In pregnant sow disease goes unnoticed. Sow may shed virus for months especially at farrowing

High Mortality: In piglets infected congenitally or post-natally. Piglets look healthy at birth, shed virus for 6-12 month before dying

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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‘Carrier Sow Syndrome’ spleen. Clinical Signs

  • Clinical Signs in Sows

    • Usually mild (fever)

    • or subclinical.

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Clinical Signs in Piglets spleen.

Stillbirths, deformities, mummies,

born dead, or congenital tremors.

Some are born healthy:

become persistent shedders to maintain CSF in breeding herd;

are immuno-tolerant but will eventually die of ‘late onset’ disease at 6-12 months of age.

‘Carrier Sow Syndrome’ Clinical Signs

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Congenital Form of CSF spleen.

  • Weak "Shaker" piglets

  • Persistently infected

    • Viremic - seronegative piglets

  • Life-long viremia

  • Will in time lead to complications and death

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Classical Swine Fever spleen.Clinical Signs

  • HOT, SICK PIGS

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Neurological Signs spleen.

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Clinical Signs spleen.

  • Constipation followed by diarrhea

  • Reproductive disorders

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Clinical Signs spleen.

Physical exam

to view

tonsils

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Clinical Signs spleen.

  • Tonsillar

    necrosis

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Tonsil Necrosis and Severe Hemorrhage spleen.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Tonsil Necrosis spleen.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006




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Severe depression spleen.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Skin hyperemia & hemorrhage spleen.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Conjunctivitis spleen.

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Conjunctivitis spleen.

European Wild Boar

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High Mortality in Piglets spleen.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Lesions of CSF spleen.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Mottled LN spleen.

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Mottled Lymph Node spleen.

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Mottled Lymph Nodes spleen.

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Lymph node necrosis spleen.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Splenic infarcts spleen.

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Spleen lesions spleen.

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Spleen spleen.

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Spleen spleen.

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Renal petechiation spleen.

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Renal lesions spleen.

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Renal lesions spleen.

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Renal lesions spleen.

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Chronic CSF: spleen.Button Ulcers in Cecum

Classical Swine Fever - 2006



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Transmission spleen.

  • The main source of infection is the PIG, either live animal contact or uncooked pig products

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Transmission spleen.

  • Mechanical transmission

  • Fomites very important

  • Veterinarians and farm

    workers

  • Discarded infected pig meat

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Transmission spleen.

  • VERY CONTAGIOUS

  • Causes devastating epidemics

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Transmission spleen.

  • Direct Transmission

    • Contact between sick and healthy animals: all tissues, excretions, secretions, semen and blood (oronasal).

    • Transplacental infection: Carrier Sow Syndrome.

    • Airborne spread to neighbors possible if high density pig farms.

  • Indirect Transmission

    • Feeding uncooked garbage with infected meat.

    • Fomites: vehicles, equipment, boots, clothes.

How is CSFV often introduced into a new country?

Garbage!

How does CSFV travel once established?

Movement/Fomites

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Stability of CSF Virus spleen.

Moderately Fragile

  • Survives well in cool, moist & protein rich environments

    • E.g. Stored Meat

  • Can survive some forms of meat processing

    • Survives curing and smoking

  • Partially resistant to heat

    • Readily killed by cooking

  • Inactivated at pH < 3.0 or > 11.0

  • Susceptible to organic solvents (ether, chloroform)

  • Inactivated by most disinfectants: 1-2% NaOH suitable

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Route of Infection of CSF spleen.

  • Ingestion: e.g. contaminated swill

  • Contact with the conjunctiva

  • Mucous membranes

  • Skin abrasions

  • Insemination

    • Contaminated semen caused 1967 outbreak in the Netherlands

Oronasal Route

All secretions and excretions are infectious

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Environmental Persistence: spleen.Moderately Fragile

  • Sensitive to desiccation & UV

  • Stable at pH 3-11

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Environmental Persistence: spleen.Moderately Fragile

  • Survival in Pork Products

    • Up to 85 days in chilled pork.

    • >4 years in frozen pork.

    • 313 days in Parma hams and 140 -252 days in Serrano and Iberian hams.

    • Readily killed by cooking e.g. 30 min 65oC.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Spanish Serrano Ham spleen.

Parma ham  —  prosciutto di Parma  — 

is a type of Italian raw, salted and dried ham,

produced in Parma region. It is one of the

most famous varieties of cured hams.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Environmental Persistence: spleen.Moderately Fragile

  • Survival in environment

    • Months in contaminated pig pens in temperate climates.

    • 15 days in liquid phase of manure slurry.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Classical swine fever spleen.2004

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Geographic Distribution spleen.

  • Distributed nearly worldwide

  • Higher prevalence

    • East & Southeast Asia, India, China, South and Central America

  • Africa???

  • Eradicated in:

    • U.S.

    • Australia

    • New Zealand

    • Canada

    • Parts of Europe

Threat to Puerto Rico and U.S.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Disease Control Measures spleen.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Immunity & Vaccines for CSF spleen.

  • Good immunity post-infection

  • MLV vaccines available

    • Lapinized vaccines

    • Cell culture vaccines

    • Yearly dose (Safe in pregnant gilts)

  • Marker sub-unit vaccines

    • DIVA strategy

      • E2 Vaccine and Erns ELISA

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Diagnosis spleen.

  • History

  • Clinical signs

  • Post Mortem findings

    • Hemorrhage in lymph nodes, kidneys, tonsils, etc.

    • Splenic infarcts: nearly pathognomonic

  • Histopathology

    • Degeneration and necrosis of endothelial cells

    • LN: lymphocytic depletion & reticular hyperplasia

  • Laboratory testing: required for confirmation

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Laboratory Testing for CSF spleen.

  • Virus isolation

    • In Swine Cell Cultures; Inoculation in Live Pigs to confirm.

  • Antigen Detection

    • Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test (DFAT)

    • Monoclonal antibody-Avidin Biotin Complex (ABC)

  • Nucleic Acid Detection

    • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) – Conventional & Real-time

  • Antibody Detection

    • ELISA

    • Immunoperoxidase Test (IPT)

    • Virus Neutralization Test

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Nonspecific staining of crypt spleen.

in non-infected tonsil

Crypt of CSF-infected tonsil

Direct FA test for Classical Swine Fever

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Cytoplasmic staining in tonsil of CSF-infected pig spleen.

No staining in tonsil of negative control pig

ABC Immunoperoxidase Test for Classical Swine Fever

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Differential Diagnosis spleen.

  • African Swine Fever

  • Pasteurella

  • Haemophilus

  • Salmonellosis (septicemic)

  • Erysipelas

  • Eperythrozoonosis

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Differential Diagnosis spleen.

  • Poisoning, e.g. Coumarin (hemorrhage), Salt (CNS)

  • Pseudorabies virus (PRV)

  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)

  • Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome (PDNS)

  • Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS)

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Image Watermarks spleen.

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Online References spleen.

  • OIE Technical Cards (2005): www.oie.int/eng/maladies/en_fiches.htm

  • Center for Food Security and Public Health (2004): www.cfsph.iastate.edu

  • USAHA Foreign Animal Diseases book (1998): www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/gray_book/

  • The Merck Veterinary Manual, 8th ed., 1998,

    Online (2003): www.merckvetmanual.com

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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Acknowledgements spleen.

Corrie Brown, DVM PhD. University of Georgia, CVM

William H. White, BVSc, MPH, Senior Staff Veterinarian, USDA, APHIS, PIADC

Robin Sewell, DVM, Librarian

Kelsey Pohler- Research Assistant

Tita Burnham – Student Assistant

Classical Swine Fever - 2006


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