Road to the agricultural revolution
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Road to the Agricultural Revolution. Paleolithic to Neolithic Era. Prehistory. Prehistoric or Prehistory – refers to the time before the advancement of writing. Paleolithic Era. Paleolithic Era also means Old Stone Age . The Paleolithic or old stone age began 2 million years go.

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Road to the Agricultural Revolution

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Road to the Agricultural Revolution

Paleolithic to Neolithic Era


Prehistory

  • Prehistoric or Prehistory – refers to the timebefore the advancement of writing.


Paleolithic Era

  • Paleolithic Era also means OldStoneAge.

  • The Paleolithic or old stone age began 2 million years go.


Paleolithic Era

  • Homo Sapiens during this period were:

    • Nomads

    • The first to make simpletools and weapons.

    • Make cave art

    • Master the use of Fire.

    • Develop a language

    • Living in clans


Neolithic Era

  • Neolithic Era also means the new

  • stoneage.

  • Homo Sapiens during this period:

    • Developed agriculture

    • Domesticated animals

    • Used advanced tools like spears

    • Developed weaving skills


The Agricultural Revolution

  • The Neolithic Age is sometimes called the Agricultural Age

    • Nomads turned to Farmers

    • They learned to domesticate (tame) animals

    • They learned to farm their food


Agricultural Revolution

  • From food gathering to food producing

  • 8000 BCE

  • Occurred at different time in different parts of the world

  • Happened slowly

  • Some hunted , some planted seeds


Social Variations

  • Pastoral

  • Agricultural

  • Chiefdoms


Happened Independently

  • 1. Fertile Crescent

  • 2. several areas in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • 3. New Guinea

  • 4. Mesoamerica

  • 5. the Andes

  • 6. eastern North America

  • 7. China


Agricultural Revolution as a marker event:Important changes that changed the way humans live:

  • 1. People settled down -

    • private property emerged as people claimed land

    • Accumulated goods and possessions

  • 2. Division of labor -

    • specialized labor according to talents

    • Tools, tending animals, crafts

      3. Social inequality

    • Land accumulation passed down from generation to generation


continued

  • 4. Gender inequality

    • Began status distinction b/t men and women

    • Loss of women economic power

    • men took over care of plants and animals

    • Women did domesticated chores

  • 5. The importance of surplus

    • Not everyone a farmer

    • Farmers had to grow enough food for specialized laborers

    • More reliable food - improved health, pop. Growth

    • Led to growth of towns and cities


continued

  • 6. Religious changes

    • Polytheism - multiple gods

    • Gods with human characteristics

    • Sun god, rain god, fertility gods

    • Connection b/t fertility of soil and fertility of human beings

    • Vuluptuous female deities


Craft Industries

  • Pottery - clay

    • Store food

  • Metallurgy

    • Copper - easily malleable

    • Knives, axes, farm tools, weapons

  • Textiles

    Made useful products for the whole community


Towns and cities grow

  • By 4000 BCE

  • Jericho - Jordan River

  • Catal Huyuk - Turkey

  • Heavily fortified for protection

  • Trade to supplement agricultural base


What are the advantages and disadvantages of civilization?


Civilizations

  • Not all people lived in villages and settled. Many clans today are still nomads

  • Early city dwellers viewed nomads as inferior - barbarians

  • Humans now control other living species

  • Can reshape environment


What did it all lead to?

  • All of these developments led to the rise of settlements and agriculture.

  • This advanced homo sapiens towards civilization.


The Five Features of a Civilization


Pneumonic Device

  • Ants

    • Advanced Cities

  • Can’t

    • Complex Institutions (government, religion)

  • Take

    • Technology

  • Slick

    • Specialized workers

  • Rice

    • Record Keeping


Advanced Cities

  • In order to be considered a city it must have:

    • 1. Large population

    • 2. Must be a center of TRADE


Complex Institutions

  • Institution – a long lasting pattern of organization in a community such as

    • Government

    • Religion

    • Economy


Technology

  • New tools and techniques that solve problems and make life easier


Specialized Workers

  • Specialized means someone has the skills to do a specifickind of work


Record Keeping

  • Must have a developed system of writing so the people can:

    • Record business

    • Write a set of laws

    • Priests can record rituals and dates


POV Exercise

  • A view of Enkidu in the Epic of Gilgamesh, early Mesopotamia

  • “His body was rough; he had long hair like a woman’s; it waved like the hair of Nisaba, the goddess of corn. His body was covered with matted hair like Samuquan’t, the god of cattle. He was innocent of mankind; he knew nothing of cultivated land….

  • With awe in his heart he spoke to his father: “Father, there is a man, unlike any other, who comes down from the hills. He is the strongest in the world, he is like an immortal from heaven. He ranges over the hills with wild beasts and eats grass; he ranges through your land and comes down to the well. I am afraid and dare not go near him. He fills in the pits which I dig and tears up my traps set for the game; he helps the beasts to escape and now they slip through my fingers.”


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