The road to revolution
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The Road To Revolution. The Deep Roots of Revolution. New ideas took hold in America from the 1 st settlements Change came easier to Americans Less acceptant of old ways Able to make the world over. The Enlightenment. Basic philosophy

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The Road To Revolution

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The road to revolution

The Road To Revolution


The deep roots of revolution

The Deep Roots of Revolution

  • New ideas took hold in America from the 1st settlements

    • Change came easier to Americans

    • Less acceptant of old ways

    • Able to make the world over


The enlightenment

The Enlightenment

  • Basic philosophy

    • “Darkness” of the past ages could be corrected by using human reason to solve many of the days problems.

    • John Locke & Jean-Jacque Rousseau


What is the social contract

What is the “social contract”?

  • In a state of nature there is no law. Man entered into a contract with rulers to rule them but protect their natural rights.


What are natural rights

What are “natural rights”?

  • Rights every human has been given by God that he doesn’t involve himself with but must be protected by rulers.

    • Economic and political freedoms


What are a government s responsibilities

What are a government’s responsibilities?

  • Governments must promote well being of its citizens and protect their rights.


What if governments fail in this attempt to protect natural rights

What if governments fail in this attempt to protect natural rights?

  • Citizens have the right to rebel and enter into a new contract with other rulers that will protect their natural rights.


What is republicanism

What is republicanism?

  • People subordinate their private, selfish interests to the good of the community.

  • Stability depends on virtuous citizenry and civil involvement.


Who were the radical whigs

Who were the “radical whigs”?

  • Political comments made by radical whigs in England affect the way the colonists view their relationship with Europe.

  • Whigs are afraid of arbitrary power exercised my monarchs because it threatens liberty.

  • Warned citizens to be on guard against encroachments against liberty by arbitrary powers.


Americans respond

Americans respond

  • Americans alert to threats to liberty.

  • Americans were used to running their own affairs and distance from the mother country weakens their authority in America.


Mercantilism

Mercantilism


Mercantilism justifies british control over colonies

Mercantilism justifies British control over Colonies

  • Wealth was power and could be measured by amount of gold and silver

  • Export more than import (balance of trade)

  • Colonies gave a distinct advantage for raw materials and a market for finished products.


London saw colonies as tenants

London saw colonies as tenants

  • Expected to furnish raw materials

  • Not to compete with British manufacturers

  • Not worry about self sufficiency


Navigation laws

Navigation Laws

  • To regulate mercantilist policies in colonies

  • Aimed at Dutch shippers trying to gain American trade


Three rules

Three rules

  • 1. All commerce had to be carried on British and American ships only

  • 2. All products bound for America had to stop in Britain first and pay a tax

  • 3. Some products could only be sold to Britain (tobacco) (expanded later)


Currency

Currency

  • Problems for Americans

    • Bought more British goods than sold

    • Creates cash shortage in America of gold and silver


What colonists do

What colonists do

  • Barter for products

  • Print their own money (inflation)

  • Parliament stops printing of money or trading with money except gold and silver

  • American interests being sacrificed for British merchants

  • They could also nullify any colonial law they did not like (scared Americans)


Merits of mercantilism

Merits of Mercantilism

  • Wasn’t that burdensome

  • Americans disregarded them anyway

  • Liberal bounties for colonial producers of ship parts

  • Virginia tobacco planters have a ready market

  • Protection of the British navy


Problems of mercantilism

Problems of Mercantilism

  • Stifled economic initiative

  • Dependency on British creditors and agents

  • Felt used and humiliated

  • Was America an emerging nation?


The stamp act

The Stamp Act


Why do the british move to tax the american colonies

Why do the British move to tax the American colonies?

  • Huge debt after the 7 Years War

  • Felt the Americans should pay their share for the protection Britain gives them.

  • Changes the relationship between Britain and the Colonies.

  • King George III wants larger role in controlling the colonies.


George grenville

George Grenville

  • New finance minister

  • Begins to strictly enforce Navigation Acts

  • Wants to raise money to pay the nation’s debts.


The sugar act

The Sugar Act

  • 1764

  • To raise money for the crown

  • Increased duty for sugar from West Indies

  • Agitation lowered the tax.

  • Beginning to change the relationship with Britain and colonies


Quartering act of 1765

Quartering Act of 1765

  • Required certain towns to provide food and quarters for British troops stationed in America.

  • Americans don’t feel a need for the troops after the French & Indian War is won.


The stamp act1

The Stamp Act

  • Purpose

    • To raise money to support the military in America

    • Tax on paper products using stamps and required many new uses for stamps

    • Want colonist to pay their fair share for their own defense


Americans respond1

Americans respond

  • Struck at liberties that they have always assumed was theirs

  • Offended their basic rights as Englishmen

    • Offenders could be tried in admiralty court

      • What about jury of you peers?

    • Felt rights were being taken away


No taxation without representations

“No taxation without representations”

  • Americans felt they were not represented in Parliament

  • They had always taxed themselves


Virtual representation

Virtual Representation

  • Parliament said colonists were represented

  • Parliament represented all of its British subjects

  • Colonists felt this was robbery by taking their money without giving them a voice in their own taxation laws


Conspiracy

Conspiracy?

  • Was this to whip colonists into shape?

  • Americans begin to attack the Stamp Act


Stamp act congress in 1765

Stamp Act Congress in 1765

  • New York City

  • 27 delegates from 9 colonies

  • Statement of rights and grievances and ask for repeal of Stamp Act

    • Appeal ignored in England

    • Began to erode sectional suspicions

    • Step toward colonial unity


Non importation agreements

Non importation agreements

  • Stop importing British goods into colonies

  • Americans begin to make own clothes and products

  • Spontaneously united the country for the first time


Mobilization

Mobilization

  • Gives citizens chance to participate

  • Get off the sidelines

  • Groups assembled and met

  • Helps revolutionary war fever


Sons of liberty

Sons of Liberty

  • Violent and radical groups

  • Enforced the non importation agreements in their own colonies

  • Sometimes violently

  • Used peer pressure and other means

  • Pressured tax collectors and government leaders


Tax collecting break down

Tax collecting break down

  • Many tax collectors forced to resign

  • No one to sell stamps

  • Law defied or nullified


England hit hard

England hit hard

  • Non importation agreements affect British trade

  • ¼ of British exports go to America

  • ½ of British shipping devoted to America

  • People thrown out of work

  • British people and businesses call on Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act


Repeal

Repeal

  • Parliament could not understand why Americans would not pay their share

  • Colonists rejoice

  • Parliament passes Declaratory Acts

    • Reaffirms Parliament’s right to bind colonies in “all cases whatsoever”

    • England draws line in the sand

    • Colonist want measure of self rule


Charles townshend

Charles Townshend

  • Takes over British finance ministry

  • Champagne Charley

  • Promises to deliver taxes with minimum colonial agitation


The townshend acts

The Townshend Acts

  • Tax on tea, glass, lead, paper, paint

  • Tax paid at American ports makes it an internal tax

  • Colonists don’t care for the distinction

  • Tax on tea bothers colonists the most

    • 1 million tea drinkers


The tax

The tax

  • Salaries of governors now paid with tax and not colonial legislatures

    • Another attempt to control colonies

    • New York assembly suspended for not complying with Quartering Act


Non importation again

Non importation again

  • Revived

  • Less effective this time

  • Tax not liked but not taken too seriously

  • Too many smuggling tea anyway


Troops

Troops

  • Britain land troops in Boston in 1768 to keep order in colonies

  • Soldiers drunk and disorderly

  • Not good Puritans

  • Colonists mocked them

    • Lobster Backs


Boston massacre

Boston Massacre

  • March 5, 1770

  • Mob taunting troops

  • First shot?

  • Crispus Attucks killed first

    • Runaway black slave

  • John Adams defends soldiers

    • Get off with minor punishment

  • Paul Revere paints propaganda

    • Well known depiction of Massacre


Lord north

Lord North

  • Gets repeal of Townshend Acts

    • Weren’t producing anything but rebellion

  • Left tax on tea

    • To show colonists who rules

  • Begins to insist on enforcing Navigation Acts


Sam adams

Sam Adams

  • Master propagandist and engineer of the rebellion

  • Sensitive to infractions of colonial rights

  • Agitator and rebellion organizer

  • Appealed to the trained mob

  • Failed at all other endeavors


Committees of correspondence

Committees of Correspondence

  • Began in Massachusetts 1772

  • 80 towns soon followed

  • Spread spirit of resistance by exchanging letters

  • Kept opposition to British policies alive


Next step

Next step

  • Becomes inter-colonial committees

  • House of Burgesses had a standing committee

  • Help spread information and kept sentiment on side of colonies

  • Evolved into the first American Congress


Gaspee incident

Gaspee Incident

  • British customs ship had hurt colonial smuggling

  • Ran aground

  • Colonists dressed like Indians order British off boat and burn

  • Investigation reveals nothing


Boston tea party

Boston Tea Party

  • British East Indian Company had surplus of tea.

  • Britain gives company monopoly of tea trade

  • Tea would be cheaper even with the tax

  • Americans cry foul

  • Britain wants to enforce the law


The tea party

The Tea Party

  • Colonists dressed up as Indians board the ships in Boston harbor and dump the crates overboard

  • New York and Philadelphia ships return to England

  • Maryland burned boats

  • Charleston seized the ships


Effects

Effects

  • Some saw this in defense of liberty

  • British saw it as a violation of property rights

  • Britain will now whip colonists into shape

  • Whigs in Parliament like Edmund Burke are supporting the colonists


Intolerable acts coersive acts

Intolerable Acts (Coersive Acts)

  • Passed to control the colonists and punish the people of Boston

  • The Port Act closed the port of Boston until tea was paid for

  • Reduced power of Massachusetts legislature

  • Government officials accused of crime could be tried in England

  • Expanded Quartering Act to include private homes.

    • Colonists are outraged


Quebec act

Quebec Act

  • 1774

  • Passed with the Coersive Acts

  • Organized the Canadian lands

  • Accepted by most French Canadians

  • Resented by colonists


Provisions

Provisions

  • Established Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec

  • Set up a government without a representative assembly

  • Extended Quebec’s boundary to the Ohio River


Reaction

Reaction

  • Direct attack on American colonies

  • They claimed land in Ohio Valley

  • Afraid similar laws would be enacted in America and take away representative government

  • Resented the spread of Catholicism to their western regions


1 st continental congress

1st Continental Congress

  • Philadelphia

  • Want a redress of grievances

  • 12 of 13 colonies represented

  • Adams, Adams, Washington, Henry

  • Social activities after meetings help pave way for cooperation later on

  • A consultive body


Declaration of rights

Declaration of Rights

  • Petition to King urging him to redress colonial grievances and restore colonial rights

  • Recognized Parliament’s right to regulate commerce


Suffolk resolve

Suffolk Resolve

  • Rejected Intolerable Acts and called for their immediate repeal

  • Pushed for colonies to resist by beginning to boycott British goods.


The association

The Association

  • Most important part of the 1st Continental Congress

  • Call for complete boycott of British goods

  • Would be the enforcers of the nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption of British goods

  • Calls for another meeting if needed


Lexington and concord

Lexington and Concord

  • Gage sent troops to capture colonial war supplies in Concord

  • Also to arrest rebel leaders

  • April 1775


The shot heard around the world

“The shot heard around the world”

  • No one knows who fired first

  • 8 Americans killed at Lexington

  • Marched on to Concord

  • Warned by Paul Revere and Charles Dawes

  • On return trip met with angry colonists

    • 70 British killed and 300 casualties

    • WAR HAD BEGUN!


Imperial strengths

Imperial Strengths

  • Britain had 7.5 million people to 2.5 million in America

  • British wealth and naval supremacy

  • Professional army of 50,000

  • Could afford to hire German Hessians of 30,000

  • British had 50,000 loyal Americans

  • Used Indians that were loyal


Imperial weaknesses

Imperial Weaknesses

  • Ireland a thorn in Britain’s side which occupied British troops

  • France wants to strike at Britain

  • Government confused and inept

  • Many British opposed to killing American cousins

  • Whig support of colonists in Parliament


More problems

More problems

  • British difficulties

    • Second rate generals

    • Soldiers brutally treated

    • Provisions scarce

  • Had to conquer America

    • 3000 miles from home

    • Orders from London arrive too late

    • America had no nerve center to capture and end war


American strengths

American strengths

  • Outstanding leadership

    • George Washington

    • Ben Franklin

    • John Adams

    • Marquis de Lafayette

  • Fighting a defensive war

  • Agriculture self sustaining

  • Belief in a just cause


American weaknesses

American weaknesses

  • Badly organized for war

    • No colonial unity

    • Continental Congress grow feeble

  • Jealousy grew between states

    • Did not want to give power up

  • Economic problems

    • Metallic money drained

    • Paper money worthless

  • Prices soar

  • Desertions rose


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