Italian Unification

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Italian Unification

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1. Italian Unification Ms. Tully AP European History U11: Nationalism

2. Early Attempts at Unification Italy – a geographic term, no resemblance of unification Reorganized after Congress of Vienna Risorgimento – political and social movement for Italian unification Giuseppe Mazzini – Italian nationalist who founded Young Italy in 1831 (goal of unification)

3. Revolutions of 1848 Sicily, Lombardy, Venetia, Piedmont-Sardinia Revolt against conservative governments – goal of unified, liberal government King of Piedmont-Sardinia became leader of “war of liberation” Austrians crushed rebellion in Lombardy & Venetia, French assisted Papal States Piedmont-Sardinia able to retain liberal constitution

4. Papacy strongly opposed unification, and any/all modern trends Austria remained dominant power on Italian peninsula Nationalists now turned to kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia to lead process of unification

5. Leadership of Cavour King of P-S, Victor Emmanuel II, named Count Camillo di Cavour prime minister in 1852 Liberal minded nobleman, favored constitutional gov’t Pursued policy of economic expansion in P-S Building infrastructure, expanding credit to stimulate investment Generated money for army Realized that Italian unification depended on expelling Austria Needed powerful ally to defeat Austria – turned to Napoleon III France would gain territory, marriage alliance

6. Provoked Austria into war in 1859 French soon abandoned Italy – made peace with Austria Initial failure of unification – Cavour furious P-S received only Lombardy However, Nationalists had gained support in other Italian territories – Parma, Modena, Tuscany Voted to join P-S in 1860 Italy now partially unified

7. The Efforts of Garibaldi Super-patriot/Embodiment of Romantic Nationalism – Giuseppe Garibaldi Had supported Mazzini and Young Italy Raised nationalistic army of “Red Shirts”- emerged as independent force in Italian politics

8. Led army to Sicily in May 1860 to support revolt against Bourbon king – Gained control of Sicily by July 1860 Crossed to mainland in August 1860 – began victorious march up Italian peninsula Gained control of Naples, other southern territories Goal = Rome Cavour feared that attack on Rome would provoke war with France Also feared Garibaldi’s radicalism & popularity Sent troops from P-S to stop Garibaldi’s Red Shirts

9. Garibaldi conceded – supported Cavour to achieve larger goal of unification and avoid civil war Plebiscites in southern Italian territories voted to join kingdom of P-S = Unified Italy March 1861!! Constitutional monarchy under Victor Emmanuel II Venetia joined in 1866, Rome in 1870 – assistance of Prussian wars Unified, but conservative Small minority of male suffrage Social class divisions Progressive industrial north, rural stagnant south

10. Study Questions Why did the voters of France elect Louis Napoleon president in 1848? What were some of the benefits Napoleon bestowed upon his subjects? How did he manage to gain the position of emperor? How and why did Napoleon liberalize his rule? What were the long-term political implications of the Crimean War?

11. 4. Why was Italy, before 1860, merely a geographical expression? What had caused the peninsula to be so divided? 5. How did the balance of power between nations affect Cavour’s attempts to unify Italy? What was the importance of Garibaldi’s liberation of Sicily and Naples in 1860 toward Italy’s becoming a unified nation-state?

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