Chapter 5
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Chapter 5. Barriers to Recreation Participation. Barrier vs. Constraints. Stop or inhibit participation Move to concept of constraints over last couple of decades. Most Common Constraints??. What constraints do you experience in your leisure participation?

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Chapter 5

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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Barriers to Recreation Participation


Barrier vs constraints

Barrier vs. Constraints

  • Stop or inhibit participation

  • Move to concept of constraints over last couple of decades


Most common constraints

Most Common Constraints??

  • What constraints do you experience in your leisure participation?

  • 2 most often cited by general population??


Hierarchical typology of constraints crawford and godbey

Hierarchical Typology of Constraints (Crawford and Godbey)

  • Intrapersonal (within person: fear, lack of confidence, lack of energy, etc.)

  • Interpersonal (between people: time schedules, different interests, lack of someone with whom to participate, etc.)

  • Structural (outside of person: lack of accessibility, attitude, etc.)

  • Must solve intrapersonal, interpersonal, and then structural (order)


Constraints negotiation jackson crawford and godbey 1993

Constraints Negotiation (Jackson, Crawford, and Godbey, 1993)

  • People negotiate constraints—participation is not necessarily stopped or inhibited

  • Constraint Negotiation Strategies:

    • behavioral (approx 90 – 95 percent)

    • cognitive (approx 5 – 10 percent)

    • combination of both strategies


Constraints and pwd

Constraints and PWD

  • PWD experience same/similar constraints as do persons without disabilities; however, pwd may experience these constraints in an intensified manner and may have additional constraints specifically related to disability


Types of barriers

Types of Barriers

  • Intrinsic Barriers are constraints that result from an individual’s own physical, emotional, or cognitive limitations.

  • Environmental Barriers are composed of many external forces that are imposed on the individual by societal or natural conditions.


Intrinsic barriers

Intrinsic Barriers

  • Lack of Knowledge

    • Individuals are unable to recognize their maximum level of leisure functioning because they lack essential knowledge of programs, facilities, and other recreation/leisure resources.

  • Why/How does this happen?

  • Solutions?


Intrinsic barriers1

Intrinsic Barriers

  • Social Ineffectiveness

    • Individuals display ineffective social skills and inappropriate behavior in social situations due to parental overprotection, segregation from peers without disabilities, and inadequate feedback on social situations.

  • Results in a depression/isolation/depression cycle

  • Solutions?


Intrinsic barriers2

Intrinsic Barriers

  • Health Problems

    • Some types of disabilities present recurring health problems which can make participation in certain activities very limited.

  • Does every person with a disability have health-related problems?

  • Contraindications

  • Solutions?


Intrinsic barriers3

Intrinsic Barriers

  • Physical and Psychological Dependency

    • Occurs when persons with disabilities do not achieve independent functioning, not due to the actual impact of their disability, but to “learning” to be dependent by being overprotected and/or over assisted by others

  • Physical dependence occurs when someone does “too” much for persons with disabilities—tasks the he or she could do for him/herself

  • Psychological dependence becomes “internalized oppression” and does not foster initiative, creative thought, risk-taking, and perseverance in action

  • Learned helplessness results

  • Can be specific or global


Intrinsic barriers4

Intrinsic Barriers

  • Skill/Challenge Gap

    • Occurs when the challenge presented by an activity does not match the skills of the participant

  • If challenge is high and skill is low: anxiety occurs

  • If challenge is low and skills are high: boredom occurs 

  • Why/How does this occur specific to persons with disabilities?

  • Solutions?


Environmental barriers

Environmental Barriers

  • Attitudinal Barriers

    • Behaviors, which may be exhibited by family, friends, or strangers, are broken down into three categories:

    • Negative behaviors inform the individual that he or she has less value than a person who does not have a disability.

    • Paternalistic behaviors occur when people treat adolescents/adults with a disability like they are children.

    • Apathetic behaviors take place when people without a disability do not portray feelings of sympathy, understanding, or caring toward people who have a disability.

  • Which behaviors can be changed?


Environmental barriers1

Environmental Barriers

  • Architectural Barriers

    • Structures such as buildings and walkways that present an obstacle for people with disabilities.

  • Solution?

  • Ecological Barriers

    • Physical obstacles, such as hills, trees, sand, and rain, that occur in the natural environment.

  • Solutions?


Environmental barriers2

Environmental Barriers

  • Transportation Barriers

    • The lack of usable/affordable transportation for individuals with a disability can prevent individuals from participating in community resources.

  • Solutions?

  • Economic Barriers

    • Financial restrictions caused by limited job opportunities, low-paying positions, and high cost for special transportation and assistance for people with disabilities.

  • Solutions?


Environmental barriers3

Environmental Barriers

  • Rules and Regulations Barrier

    • When existing rules and regulations of an agency inhibit or stop recreation participation by persons with disabilities

    • Examples in text

  • Solutions?


Environmental barriers4

Environmental Barriers

  • Barriers of Omission

    • Failure of society to provide for the needs of individuals who have disabilities.

  • Failure to provide accessible facilities, failure to advertise programs, failure to make accommodations, etc. 

  • Solutions?


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