Hamilton air quality and health impacts study 2011
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Hamilton Air Quality and Health Impacts Study - 2011. Presented to: Upwind Downwind Conference Presented by: Dr. Douglas Chambers February 27, 2012. 1. Background. Project a result of interest by Clean Air Hamilton (CAH) to update Health Impacts Assessment

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Hamilton Air Quality and Health Impacts Study - 2011

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Hamilton Air Qualityand Health Impacts Study - 2011

Presented to:

Upwind Downwind Conference

Presented by:

Dr. Douglas Chambers

February 27, 2012

1


Background

  • Project a result of interest by Clean Air Hamilton (CAH) to update Health Impacts Assessment

    • Significant work undertaken by CAH and partners to lower air concentrations in Hamilton for many pollutants


Some Initiativesto Improve Air Quality

Public Health initiatives (AQHI)

Sustainable transportation initiatives (anti-idling, mobile monitoring)

Improved air monitoring (Hamilton Air Monitoring Network On-line)

Air Quality communication (CAH website)

Emission reductions (wood burning efficiency initiative)


City of Hamilton Boundaries


Air Pollutants Considered

  • Fine Particulate Matter

    • PM10 and PM2.5

  • Nitrogen Dioxide

    • Surrogate for NOx as NO converted rapidly to NO2

  • Sulphur Dioxide

  • Ozone

  • Carbon Monoxide


Air Quality - PM2.5


Air Quality – PM10


Air Quality – NO2


Air Quality – SO2


Air Quality – O3


Air Quality – CO


Previous Study - 2003

Used Dr. Pengelly’s Hamilton Air Quality Initiative 1997 report as a basis

Used same methodology to allow for comparison

Updated the relative risk outcomes for PM10, NO2, SO2, CO and O3

Adjusted health outcomes by 42% due to errors in the derivation of the relative risks from the literature


Current Study

  • Used same methodology as 2003 study

  • Updated air quality data

    • Obtained from the MOE

  • Updated mortality and morbidity health data

    • Obtained from Hamilton Public Health Services


Current Study …cont’d

  • Updated relative risks where new studies were available

    • All relative risks for mortality updated

    • Only some for morbidity

      • Adopted relative risks from 2003 study

  • Included health outcomes for PM2.5


Assumptions Used in Current Study

  • Focus on relative risks of acute exposures

    • Similar to previous study

  • Used average relative risks values

    • Separate relative risks for each air pollutant

      • May result in double-counting

  • Considered representative air concentrations

    • No consideration of proximity to industry or major roadways


Health Data

  • Obtained Health Data from City of Hamilton Public Health Services

  • Mortality Data

    • Only available up to 2005

  • Morbidity Data

    • Cardiovascular hospital admissions up to 2008

    • Respiratory hospital admissions up to 2008


Mortality and Morbidity Rates for Hamilton

* Approximated by Total Acute Care Hospital Discharges for Disease of the Circulatory System

** Approximated by Acute Care Hospital Discharges for Disease of the Respiratory System


Relative Risks Used in the Study

Note:

“-” no data available in the literature to determine a relative risk

* relative risks obtained from Sahsuvaroglu and Jerrett (2003) as no new data available


Model Equation

  • Risk (due AQ) = ER[excess relative risk due to AQ] x [baseline rates]

  • =  [ERR (per unit Concentration)] x [Air concentration] x [ baseline rates]


NT Acute Exposure Mortality


Note: PM10, NO2 and O3 Respiratory Hospital Admissions Adjusted by 42% as Using RR Values from 2003 Study

Respiratory HospitalAdmissions


Note: SO2 and CO Cardiovascular Hospital Admissions Adjusted by 42% as Using RR Values from 2003 Study

Note: PM10, NO2 and O3 Respiratory Hospital Admissions Adjusted by 42% as Using RR Values from 2003 Study

Cardiovascular HospitalAdmissions


Results Summary

for Particulate Matter

Note: No relative risks from literature for respiratory admissions for PM2.5


Results Summary

for NO2 and SO2


Results Summary

for O3 and CO

Note: No relative risks from literature for respiratory admissions for CO


Summary of Resultsfor Current Study


Comparison of Relative Risks Between Current and Previous Studies


Comparison of Mortality Outcomes

  • Note:

  • All 1997 and 2003 study data adjusted by 42% to account for overestimation of RR values


Comparison of Respiratory Outcomes

  • Note:

  • All 1997 and 2003 study data adjusted by 42% to account for overestimation of RR values

  • PM10, NO2 and O3 current study values adjusted by 42% as no updated RR values were available


Comparison of Cardiovascular Outcomes

  • Note:

  • All 1997 and 2003 study data adjusted by 42% to account for overestimation of RR values

  • SO2 and CO current study values adjusted by 42% as no updated RR values were available


Alternative Models - ICAP

  • Details:

  • Developed by DSS Management Consultants for the Canadian Medical Association

  • PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3

  • Historical census division specific air quality data from NAPS stations

  • Input: risk rates, air quality or trends, baseline/background air quality

  • Output: annual events and economic damages attributable to increase in specific parameter level from baseline/background


Alternative Models – ICAP… cont’d

  • Limitations for this application:

  • 2006 starting year complicates comparison with current model

  • Cannot easily calculate incremental benefit or savings (damages only)

    • For this study can only demonstrate incremental health effects and economic impact with ozone as benefits associated with other pollutants

  • Cannot evaluate all pollutants in one run

  • Output format inconvenient to work with

  • Evaluates total mortality only (not chronic and acute separately)


Comparison of Relative Risks Between Current Studyand ICAP

* ICAP NT Mortality is Total While Current is Acute Only


Results from ICAP Model- Ozone


Alternative Model - AQBAT

  • Details:

  • Developed by Dave Stieb and Stan Judek, Health Canada

  • PM10, PM2.5 (limited), SO2, NO2, CO, O3

  • Historical census division specific air quality data from NAPS stations

  • Input: risk rates and air quality or trends

  • Output: annual events and damages attributable to increase in specific parameter level from baseline

  • Limitations for this application:

  • Cannot Input Air Quality Prior to 2003 for Comparison to Baseline

  • Difficult to Compare to Total Events per Year


Comparison of Relative Risks Between Current Study and AQBAT


Results from AQBAT (1)


Results from AQBAT (2)


Economic Valuation - AQBAT

Millions of Dollars

Savings Cost


Summary

  • Updated Health Study showed improvements to health outcomes

    • Due to decreases in air concentrations

      • Ozone the exception

    • Due to decreases in relative risks from literature studies

  • Limited utility of other available models for this application

    • Direct comparisons difficult to make between models

  • Cost heavily dependent on model

    • Can vary widely (in this example at least 5-fold)

  • Should update the health study in another 5 years


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