higher education in sub saharan africa
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Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. A Brief Overview. Sub-Saharan Africa. 54 countries ( E29, F20, P5 ) Population: 657 m. (28 persons/sq. km) Per capita income: USD 100 – 2,800 Life expectancy: 46 years Population growth rate: 2.3% HIV/AIDS infection: 5 - 30%

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sub saharan africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 54 countries (E29, F20, P5)
  • Population: 657 m. (28 persons/sq. km)
  • Per capita income: USD 100 – 2,800
  • Life expectancy: 46 years
  • Population growth rate: 2.3%
  • HIV/AIDS infection: 5 - 30%
  • Primary enrollment: 76%
  • Secondary enrollment: 26%
  • Tertiary enrollment: 4%
early african universities
Early African Universities
  • Established by colonial powers (English, French, Portuguese).
  • Strong links to European universities.
  • Role: lower and middle managers for colonial administrations; skilled craftsmen.
early african universities4
Early African Universities
  • Fourah Bay College, Sierra Leone, 1826
  • Liberia College, 1862
  • Fort Hare College, South Africa, 1916
  • University of Ghana, 1948
  • Ibadan University College, Nigeria,1948
  • Makerere University College, Uganda,1949
  • University of Dakar, Senegal, 1957
  • University of Tananarive, Madagascar,1960
early african universities5
Early African Universities
  • Six in 1960.
  • 1960s – the decade of independence
  • University role: produce government civil servants.
  • Incentives for university education:
    • Free tuition
    • Free room and board
    • Free books, transportation & pocket money
african universities today
African Universities Today
  • Total universities: 334 (127 private)
  • Tertiary enrollment ratio: 4%
  • Share of education budget: 9% – 35%
  • Expenditure per student: $500 - $1500 (excluding South Africa)
  • Percent female: 38%
  • Students in Science & Technology: 36%
  • Contribution to world knowledge: 0.3%
principal university systems
Principal University Systems
  • Nigeria: 45 universities, 950,000.
  • South Africa: 34 universities, 500,000.
  • Sudan: 26 universities; 185,000.
  • Ethiopia: 8 universities; 177,000
  • Kenya: 19 universities; 67,000.
  • Cameroon: 7 universities, 62,000.
main issues rapid expansion
Main Issues: Rapid Expansion
  • Enrollment growth: 10% - 15% yearly.
  • New institutions: Half are 5 years old.
  • Strong demand is a political issue.
  • Acceptance of private provision.
  • Emergence of distance education:
    • Open University, Tanzania, 1992.
    • African Virtual University, 1997.
    • Open University, Zimbabwe, 1999.
    • Open University, Nigeria, 2004.
main issues quality
Main Issues: Quality
  • Staff qualifications declining.
  • Little money for educational inputs.
  • Over-crowded classrooms.
  • Low salaries (USD 400 - 700 a month)
  • Little incentive or funds for research.
  • Very little budget for maintenance.
  • Quality assurance relatively new.
main issues staffing
Main Issues: Staffing
  • Aging professoriate.
  • HIV/AIDS.
  • Brain drain: 30% of Africa’s graduates
  • Women: 10 – 20% of academic staff.
main issues relevance
Main Issues: Relevance
  • Curricula outdated.
  • Public employment orientation.
  • Little interaction with employers.
  • Memorization, not problem-solving.
  • Research output minimal.
  • Limited ICT capacities.
main issues management
Main Issues: Management
  • Weak system management.
  • Few system support bodies.
  • Institutions led by academics.
  • Limited management information systems.
  • Human resource management not developed.
main issues financing
Main Issues: Financing
  • Declining expenditure per student.
  • No tradition of cost-sharing.
  • Little capacity to manage student loans
  • Few skills or procedures for cost efficiency.
  • Often sizeable expenditure on student welfare.
  • Private provision is recent and small.
main issues ict
Main Issues: ICT
  • Telecommunication costs are high.
  • Access to bandwidth is limited.
  • System maintenance is weak.
  • Skilled staff are difficult to recruit and retain.
  • Financial sustainability a challenge; high dependency on donors.
new developments
New Developments
  • Open and distance learning.
  • Private provision.
  • India Institute of Technology model.
  • Community oriented universities.
  • Regional collaboration.
world bank higher education projects
World BankHigher Education Projects
  • Cameroon
  • Ethiopia
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Mozambique
  • Rwanda
  • Uganda
types of activities financed
Types of Activities Financed
  • Strategy development
  • Innovation funds
  • Curriculum reforms
  • Staff development
  • Library and information access
future bank activities in africa
Future Bank Activities in Africa
  • Commission for Africa (Blair Report)
  • Africa Action Plan:
      • Emphasis shifts towards growth.
      • Higher education boosts productivity
      • Science & technology capacities
      • Research capacities
  • 8 new projects in next two years.
thank you

Thank you

William Saint

Lead Education Specialist

Africa Region

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