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一、 Single Choice Questions. 1 、 choroid of eyeball. A. occupies posterior five-sixths of middle tunic and is white in colour B. outer surface is covered by pigment cell layer of retina C.  inner surface is close to sclera D.  supplies the nutrition

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1 choroid of eyeball

一、Single Choice Questions

1、 choroid of eyeball

A. occupies posterior five-sixths of middle tunic

and is white in colour

B. outer surface is covered by pigment cell

layer of retina

C.  inner surface is close to sclera

D.  supplies the nutrition

E.  receives stimulation of light


2 ciliary body
2、 ciliary body

A. is posterior extension of choroid

B. located on external surface of junction of

cornea and sclera

C. is the thickest part of middle tunic

D.constriction of ciliary m. tenses ciliary

zonule

E.constriction of ciliary m. decreases

convexity of lens


3 iris
3、 iris

A.  is the largest part of middle tunic

B. divides chamber of the eye into anterior

and posterior chambers

C. iris and sclera meet to form angle of anterior

chamber

D. Has the function of refracting light

E.  is colourless and transparant


4 the ascending tract in the spinal cord is
4. The ascending tract in the spinal cord is

A.spinothalamic tract

B.anterior corticospinal tract

C.lateral corticospinal tract

D.rubrospinal tract

E.vestibulospinal tract


5 the fasciculus gracilis
5. The fasciculus gracilis

A.extends the whole length of the spinal cord

B.lies in the lateral part of the posterior

funiculus

C.transmits the proprioceptive sensation of the

contralateral lower limb

D. transmits the proprioceptive sensation of

bilateral (双侧) lower limb

E. transmits the proprioceptive sensation of

homolateral(同侧) trunk and limbs


6 in adult the lower end of spinal cord is at the level of
6、In adult, the lower end of spinal cord is at the level of

A. inferior border of L1

B. superior border of L1

C. inferior border of L2

D. superior border of L2

E. superior border of L3


7 the position of the 10th thoracic segment of spinal cord is at the level of
7、The position of the 10th thoracic segment of spinal cord is at the level of

A.9th thoracic vertebra

B.8th thoracic vertebra

C.7th thoracic vertebra

D.6th thoracic vertebra

E.1st lumbar vertebra


8 which is wrong about anterior horn of spinal cord
8、 Which is wrong about anterior horn of spinal cord

A.consists of the sensory neuron

B.consists of the motor neuron

C.its neuron axon passes through the

anterior root of spinal nerve

D.innervates the skeletal muscle

E.is innervated by corticospinal tract


9 which segment of the spinal cord conducts the skin sensation at the level of umbilicus
9、 Which segment of the spinal cord conducts the skin sensation at the level of umbilicus

A.the 4th thoracic segment

B.the 6th thoracic segment

C.the 8th thoracic segment

D.the 10th thoracic segment

E.the 12th thoracic segment


10 the tracts being related to transmitting motor information in spinal cord are
10. The tracts being related to transmitting motor information in spinal cord are

A. fasciculus gracilis

B. fasciculus cuneatus

C. corticonuclear tract

D. lateral corticospinal tract

E. anterior corticospinal tract


1 retina
1 information in spinal cord are、retina

二、Multiple Choice Questions

A.   is divides into outer and inner layers

B.   outer layer contains photoreceptors

C.   inner layer is pigment cell lamina

D.   optic disc is in sensitive to light

E.  visual acuity in fouea centralis of

macula lutea is highest


2 walls of tympanic cavity
2 information in spinal cord are、walls of tympanic cavity

A. superior wall is tegmental wall which

separates the middle cranial fossa from

tympanic cavity

B.  inferior wall is jugular wall

C. anterior wall is carotid wall at superior

part of which there is the opening of

auditory tube

D. posterior wall is mastoid wall

E .lateral wall is membranous wall


3 the tracts passing through the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord includ
3 information in spinal cord are、 the tracts passing through the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord includ

A 、lateral corticospinal tract

B 、anterior corticospinal tract

C 、anterior spinocerebellar tract

D 、posterior spinocerebellar tract

E 、vestibulospinal tract


The brain stem information in spinal cord are

脑 干


The brain stem

The brain stem

midbrain 中脑

pons 脑桥

medulla oblongata 延髓


Ventral surface of the brain stem
ventral surface information in spinal cord areof the brain stem

Medulla oblongata

Pyramid锥体: contain pyramidal tract (corticospinal tract)

Decussation of pyramid锥体交叉

formed by crossing fibers of corticospinal tract

Olive 橄榄: overlying inferior

olivary nucleus下橄榄核

hypoglossal nerve舌下神经

emerge from anterolateral sulcus

Glossopharyngeal n.

vagus n.

accessory n.

emerge from

retroolivary sulcus

橄榄后沟


ventral surface information in spinal cord areof the brain stem

Pons

Basilar part基底部

Basilar sulcus基底沟

Bulbopontine sulcus

延髓脑桥沟: from medial to lateral,

abducent, n展神经

facial n.

vestibulocochlear n.前庭蜗神经


ventral surface information in spinal cord areof the brain stem

Pons

Middle cerebellar peduncle小脑中脚

Trigeminal nerve三叉神经

Pontocerebellar trigone

脑桥小脑三角:

the junction of medulla, pons and cerebellum


ventral surface information in spinal cord areof the brain stem

Midbrain

Crus cerebri 大脑脚底

Interpeduncular fossa脚间窝

oculomotor nerves 动眼神经

emerge from medial of crus cerebri

Posterior perforated substance 后穿质


dorsal surface of the brain stem information in spinal cord are

脑干背面

Gracile tubercle 薄束结节: overlying gracile nucleus

Cuneate tubercle 楔束结节: overlying cuneate nucleus

Inferior cerebellar peduncle 小脑下脚

Medulla oblongata


dorsal information in spinal cord are surfaceof the brain stem

脑干背面

Pons

  • Superior cerebellar peduncle 小脑上脚

  • Superior medullary velum 上髓帆


dorsal information in spinal cord are surfaceof the brain stem

脑干背面

Midbrain

Superior colliculus上丘

centers of visual flexes视觉反射中枢

Inferior colliculus下丘

conduct auditory sensation 传导听觉

Trochlear nerve滑车神经

Brachium of superiorcolliculus

上丘臂

Brachium of inferior colliculus

下丘臂


dorsal information in spinal cord are surfaceof the brain stem

rhomboid fossa 菱形窝

Inferolateral:

gracile tubercles 薄束结节

cuneate tubercles 楔束结节

inferior cerebellar peduncle

小脑下脚

Boundaries

Superolateral:

superior cerebellar peduncle

小脑上脚

Lateral recess 外侧隐窝


dorsal information in spinal cord are surfaceof the brain stem

rhomboid fossa

Median sulcus 正中沟

Sulcus limitans 界沟

Vestibular area 前庭区

overlies vestibular nuclei

Acoustic tubercle 听结节

overlying dorsal cochlear nucleus

Medial eminence 内侧隆起

Striae medullares 髓纹

Facial colliculus面神经丘:

overlies nucleus of abducent n. and genu of facial nerve


Dorsal surface of the brain stem
dorsal information in spinal cord are surfaceof the brain stem

rhomboid fossa

Hypoglossal triangle 舌下神经三角: overlying hypoglossal nucleus

Vagal triangle 迷走神经三角: overlies dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

Area postrema 最后区:lies between the vagal triangle and gracile tubercles

Locus ceruleus 蓝斑

at the upper end of Sulcus limitans 界沟上端


Fourth ventricle
Fourth ventricle information in spinal cord are第四脑室

position

Lie between the

Pons( 脑桥), medulla

Oblongata( 延髓)

and cerebellum

(in front of cerebellum and

posterior to the pons and

medulla oblongata).


Fourth ventricle1
Fourth ventricle information in spinal cord are

Floor-- rhomboid fossa

Roof:

Anterior part

superior cerebellar peduncle

小脑上脚

superior medullary velum

上髓帆


Fourth ventricle2
Fourth ventricle information in spinal cord are

Roof:

Posterior part

inferior medullary velum

下髓帆

tela choroidea of fourth

Ventricle 第四脑室脉络组织

choroid plexuses of fourth

Ventricle 第四脑室脉络丛

produce the cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) 产生脑脊液。


Tela choroidea and choroid plexus information in spinal cord are脉络丛和脉络组织


Fourth ventricle3

Third ventricle information in spinal cord are第三脑室

Fourth ventricle

Communication 交通

(1) Median aperture of fourth ventricle第四脑室正中孔

(2) lateral apertures of fourth ventricle 第四脑室外侧孔:a pair.

Subarachnoid space 蛛网膜下隙

(3) mesencephalic aqueduct(cerebral aqueduct)中脑水管(大脑导水管)


Internal structures gray matter
Internal structures information in spinal cord are–gray matter

Nuclei 神经核

■Cranial nerve nuclei 脑神经核

■Non- Cranial nerve nuclei ( relay nuclei)

非脑神经核 (传导束中继核)

The arrangments ofCranial nerve nuclei :


General Somatic motor nuclei information in spinal cord are

一般躯体运动核

Special visceral motor nuclei

特殊内脏运动核

General visceral motor nuclei

一般内脏运动核

Cranial nerve nuclei 脑神经核

The Cranial nerve nuclei may be divided into 7 kinds:

Visceral afferent(sensory)nuclei

( general and special )

内脏感觉核(一般与特殊)

General somatic afferent (sensory)nuclei 一般躯体感觉核

Special somatic afferent (sensory)nuclei 特殊躯体感觉核


Cranial nerve nuclei information in spinal cord are脑神经核

General Somatic motor nuclei

一般躯体运动核

Nucleus of oculomotor n.

动眼神经核

Nucleus of trochlear n.

滑车神经核

Nucleus of abducent n.

展神经核

Nucleus of hypoglossal n.

舌下神经核


General information in spinal cord areSomatic motor nuclei


Special visceral motor nuclei

Cranial nerve nuclei information in spinal cord are脑神经核

Special visceral motor nuclei特殊内脏运动核

Motor nucleus of trigeminal n. 三叉神经运动核

Nucleusof facial n. 面神经

Nucleus ambiguus 疑核

Accessory nucleus副神经核


Special visceral motor nuclei information in spinal cord are


General visceral motor nuclei

Cranial nerve nuclei information in spinal cord are脑神经核

General visceral motor nuclei一般内脏运动核

Accessory oculomotor nucleus 动眼神经副核

Superior salivatory nucleus

上泌涎核

Inferior salivatory nucleus

上泌涎核

Dorsal nucleus of vagus n.

迷走神经背核


information in spinal cord areGeneral visceral motor nuclei


Visceral afferent nuclei general and special
Visceral afferent nuclei information in spinal cord are( general and special )

Cranial nerve nuclei 脑神经核

Nucleus of solitary tract孤束核

Lies in the Medulla obongata

Send out the fibers to form Ⅶ,Ⅸ,Ⅹ cranial n.

Function:

Taste and visceral sensation


General somatic afferent nuclei

Cranial nerve nuclei information in spinal cord are脑神经核

General somatic afferent nuclei一般躯体感觉核

Mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal n. 三叉神经中脑核

Pontine nucleus of trigeminal n. 三叉神经脑桥核

Spinal nucleus of trigeminal n. 三叉神经脊束核


General somatic afferent nuclei information in spinal cord are


Special somatic afferent nuclei

Cranial nerve nuclei information in spinal cord are脑神经核

Special somatic afferent nuclei特殊躯体感觉核

Cochlear nuclei

蜗神经核

Ventral cochlear nucleus

蜗神经腹侧核

Drsal cochlear nucleus

蜗神经背侧核

Vestibular nuclei

前庭神经核


Special somatic afferent nuclei information in spinal cord are


non- information in spinal cord areCranial nerve nuclei 非脑神经核

■In medulla oblongata

Gracile nucleus 薄束核

Cuneate nucleus 楔束核

Inferior olivary nucleus

下橄榄核

■In pons

Pontine nucleus脑桥核


non- information in spinal cord areCranial nerve nuclei 非脑神经核

■ in midbrain

inferior colliculus 下丘

Gray matter layers of superior colliculus

上丘灰质

Red nucleus红核

Substantia nigra黑质


Non- information in spinal cord areCranial nerve nuclei


White matter
White matter information in spinal cord are

Ascending tracts

Medial lemniscus内侧丘系

Spinal lemniscus 脊髓丘系

Trigeminal lemniscus三叉丘系

Laterallemniscus外侧丘系

Descending tracts

Pyramidal tract锥体束

Corticospinal tract皮质脊髓束

Corticonuclear tract皮质核束


White matter ascending tracts
White matter information in spinal cord are — ascending tracts

Medial lemniscus

内侧丘系

decussation of medial lemniscus 内侧丘系交叉


White matter ascending tracts1
White matter information in spinal cord are — ascending tracts

Spinal lemniscus

脊髓丘系


White matter ascending tracts2
White matter information in spinal cord are — ascending tracts

Trigeminal lemniscus

三叉丘系


White matter ascending tracts3
White matter information in spinal cord are — ascending tracts

Lateral lemniscus

外侧丘系


White matter descending tracts
White matter information in spinal cord are—descending tracts

Corticospinal tract

皮质脊髓束

Corticonuclear tract

皮质核束

Pyramidal tract 锥体束


Corticonuclear tract information in spinal cord are

皮质核束


White matter descending tracts1
White matter information in spinal cord are—descending tracts

Others:

  • rubrospinal tract

  • 红核脊髓束

  • tectospinal tract

  • 顶盖脊髓束

  • vestibulospinal tract

  • 前庭脊髓束

  • reticulospinal tract

  • 网状脊髓束


Reticular formation of brain stem
Reticular formation information in spinal cord areof brain stem脑干网状结构

The reticular formation is recognized as the extensivearea outside the more conspicuous fiber bundles and nuclei of the brain stem, in which the grey were intermingled with whiter matter. Its major function may sum up as follows:


Reticular formation of brain stem1
Reticular formation information in spinal cord areof brain stem

■Ascending reticular activating system 上行网状激动系统

maintenance of the conscious state

of cerebeal cortex. 维持大脑觉醒状态

■Viscceromotor control---vital centres生命中枢

Cardiovascular center and respiratory center in medulla oblongata.

■somatomotor control

调节躯体运动:

reticulospinal tract


The transverse section of brain stem---- information in spinal cord are

Medulla oblongata

Lower part (closed part)

  • Two decussations–

    • Decussations of medial lemniscus 内侧丘系交叉

    • Decussations of pyramid 锥体交叉


The transverse section of brain stem---- information in spinal cord are

Medulla oblongata

Upper part (open part)

  • inferior olivary nuculeus and inferior cerebellar peduncle

  • Enlargement of central canal to form the fourth ventricle floor

Tracts: pyramidal tracy

medial lemniscus

inferior cerebellar peduncle

Nuclei:

nucleus of hypoglossal n.

dorsal nucleus of vagus n.

nucleus ambiguus.

solitary nucleus,

spinal nucleus of trigeminal n.


The transverse section of brain stem---- information in spinal cord are

■Basilar part基底部

■Tegmentum of pons背盖部

pons

contains a number of new cranial nerve nuclei ,Such as :

nucleus of abducent n.

nucleus of facial n.

vestibular nuclei ,

spinal nucleus of trigeminal n.

longitudinal fibers(pyramidal tract)

transverse fibers arised from the pontine nuclei.

Middle cerebellar peduncle 小脑中脚


The transverse section of brain stem---- information in spinal cord are

midbrain

includes superior and inferior

colliculi

■tectum of midbrain中脑顶盖

■Cerebral peduncle大脑脚:

may be divided into 3 parts

● Tegmentum 被盖:

Ascending tracts:

medial lemniscus,

spinal lemniscus,

trigeminal lemniscus.

nuclei:

red nucleus, nucleus of oculomotor n. and troclear n.


The transverse section of brain stem---- information in spinal cord are

midbrain

■Cerebral peduncle大脑脚

● Tegmentum 被盖

●Substentia nigra 黑质

●Crus cerebri 大脑脚底:

frontopontine Tract 额桥束,

pyramidal tract,

tempo-occipito-pontine

tract 颞枕桥束


Lateral corticospinal tract information in spinal cord are

Anterior corticospinal tract


Superior cerebellar peduncle
superior cerebellar peduncle information in spinal cord are

  • its fibres arises from the cerebellum, and passes to the opposite thalamus and the opposite red nucleus of the midbrain.


Dorsal cochlear nuclei information in spinal cord are

Ventral cochlear nuclei