1 choroid of eyeball
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一、 Single Choice Questions. 1 、 choroid of eyeball. A. occupies posterior five-sixths of middle tunic and is white in colour B. outer surface is covered by pigment cell layer of retina C.  inner surface is close to sclera D.  supplies the nutrition

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1 、 choroid of eyeball

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一、Single Choice Questions

1、 choroid of eyeball

A. occupies posterior five-sixths of middle tunic

and is white in colour

B. outer surface is covered by pigment cell

layer of retina

C.  inner surface is close to sclera

D.  supplies the nutrition

E.  receives stimulation of light

2、 ciliary body

A. is posterior extension of choroid

B. located on external surface of junction of

cornea and sclera

C. is the thickest part of middle tunic

D.constriction of ciliary m. tenses ciliary


E.constriction of ciliary m. decreases

convexity of lens

3、 iris

A.  is the largest part of middle tunic

B. divides chamber of the eye into anterior

and posterior chambers

C. iris and sclera meet to form angle of anterior


D. Has the function of refracting light

E.  is colourless and transparant

4. The ascending tract in the spinal cord is

A.spinothalamic tract

B.anterior corticospinal tract

C.lateral corticospinal tract

D.rubrospinal tract

E.vestibulospinal tract

5. The fasciculus gracilis

A.extends the whole length of the spinal cord

B.lies in the lateral part of the posterior


C.transmits the proprioceptive sensation of the

contralateral lower limb

D. transmits the proprioceptive sensation of

bilateral (双侧) lower limb

E. transmits the proprioceptive sensation of

homolateral(同侧) trunk and limbs

6、In adult, the lower end of spinal cord is at the level of

A. inferior border of L1

B. superior border of L1

C. inferior border of L2

D. superior border of L2

E. superior border of L3

7、The position of the 10th thoracic segment of spinal cord is at the level of

A.9th thoracic vertebra

B.8th thoracic vertebra

C.7th thoracic vertebra

D.6th thoracic vertebra

E.1st lumbar vertebra

8、 Which is wrong about anterior horn of spinal cord

A.consists of the sensory neuron

B.consists of the motor neuron

C.its neuron axon passes through the

anterior root of spinal nerve

D.innervates the skeletal muscle

E.is innervated by corticospinal tract

9、 Which segment of the spinal cord conducts the skin sensation at the level of umbilicus

A.the 4th thoracic segment

B.the 6th thoracic segment

C.the 8th thoracic segment

D.the 10th thoracic segment

E.the 12th thoracic segment

10. The tracts being related to transmitting motor information in spinal cord are

A. fasciculus gracilis

B. fasciculus cuneatus

C. corticonuclear tract

D. lateral corticospinal tract

E. anterior corticospinal tract


二、Multiple Choice Questions

A.   is divides into outer and inner layers

B.   outer layer contains photoreceptors

C.   inner layer is pigment cell lamina

D.   optic disc is in sensitive to light

E.  visual acuity in fouea centralis of

macula lutea is highest

2、walls of tympanic cavity

A. superior wall is tegmental wall which

separates the middle cranial fossa from

tympanic cavity

B.  inferior wall is jugular wall

C. anterior wall is carotid wall at superior

part of which there is the opening of

auditory tube

D. posterior wall is mastoid wall

E .lateral wall is membranous wall

3、 the tracts passing through the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord includ

A 、lateral corticospinal tract

B 、anterior corticospinal tract

C 、anterior spinocerebellar tract

D 、posterior spinocerebellar tract

E 、vestibulospinal tract

The brain stem

脑 干

  • Bulbopontine sulcus


The brain stem

midbrain 中脑

pons 脑桥

medulla oblongata 延髓

ventral surfaceof the brain stem

Medulla oblongata

Pyramid锥体: contain pyramidal tract (corticospinal tract)

Decussation of pyramid锥体交叉

formed by crossing fibers of corticospinal tract

Olive 橄榄: overlying inferior

olivary nucleus下橄榄核

hypoglossal nerve舌下神经

emerge from anterolateral sulcus

Glossopharyngeal n.

vagus n.

accessory n.

emerge from

retroolivary sulcus


ventral surfaceof the brain stem


Basilar part基底部

Basilar sulcus基底沟

Bulbopontine sulcus

延髓脑桥沟: from medial to lateral,

abducent, n展神经

facial n.

vestibulocochlear n.前庭蜗神经

ventral surfaceof the brain stem


Middle cerebellar peduncle小脑中脚

Trigeminal nerve三叉神经

Pontocerebellar trigone


the junction of medulla, pons and cerebellum

ventral surfaceof the brain stem


Crus cerebri 大脑脚底

Interpeduncular fossa脚间窝

oculomotor nerves 动眼神经

emerge from medial of crus cerebri

Posterior perforated substance 后穿质

dorsal surface of the brain stem


Gracile tubercle 薄束结节: overlying gracile nucleus

Cuneate tubercle 楔束结节: overlying cuneate nucleus

Inferior cerebellar peduncle 小脑下脚

Medulla oblongata

dorsal surfaceof the brain stem



  • Superior cerebellar peduncle 小脑上脚

  • Superior medullary velum 上髓帆

dorsal surfaceof the brain stem



Superior colliculus上丘

centers of visual flexes视觉反射中枢

Inferior colliculus下丘

conduct auditory sensation 传导听觉

Trochlear nerve滑车神经

Brachium of superiorcolliculus


Brachium of inferior colliculus


dorsal surfaceof the brain stem

rhomboid fossa 菱形窝


gracile tubercles 薄束结节

cuneate tubercles 楔束结节

inferior cerebellar peduncle




superior cerebellar peduncle


Lateral recess 外侧隐窝

dorsal surfaceof the brain stem

rhomboid fossa

Median sulcus 正中沟

Sulcus limitans 界沟

Vestibular area 前庭区

overlies vestibular nuclei

Acoustic tubercle 听结节

overlying dorsal cochlear nucleus

Medial eminence 内侧隆起

Striae medullares 髓纹

Facial colliculus面神经丘:

overlies nucleus of abducent n. and genu of facial nerve

dorsal surfaceof the brain stem

rhomboid fossa

Hypoglossal triangle 舌下神经三角: overlying hypoglossal nucleus

Vagal triangle 迷走神经三角: overlies dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

Area postrema 最后区:lies between the vagal triangle and gracile tubercles

Locus ceruleus 蓝斑

at the upper end of Sulcus limitans 界沟上端

Fourth ventricle第四脑室


Lie between the

Pons( 脑桥), medulla

Oblongata( 延髓)

and cerebellum

(in front of cerebellum and

posterior to the pons and

medulla oblongata).

Fourth ventricle

Floor-- rhomboid fossa


Anterior part

superior cerebellar peduncle


superior medullary velum


Fourth ventricle


Posterior part

inferior medullary velum


tela choroidea of fourth

Ventricle 第四脑室脉络组织

choroid plexuses of fourth

Ventricle 第四脑室脉络丛

produce the cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) 产生脑脊液。

Tela choroidea and choroid plexus脉络丛和脉络组织

Third ventricle 第三脑室

Fourth ventricle

Communication 交通

(1) Median aperture of fourth ventricle第四脑室正中孔

(2) lateral apertures of fourth ventricle 第四脑室外侧孔:a pair.

Subarachnoid space 蛛网膜下隙

(3) mesencephalic aqueduct(cerebral aqueduct)中脑水管(大脑导水管)

Internal structures–gray matter

Nuclei 神经核

■Cranial nerve nuclei 脑神经核

■Non- Cranial nerve nuclei ( relay nuclei)

非脑神经核 (传导束中继核)

The arrangments ofCranial nerve nuclei :

General Somatic motor nuclei


Special visceral motor nuclei


General visceral motor nuclei


Cranial nerve nuclei 脑神经核

The Cranial nerve nuclei may be divided into 7 kinds:

Visceral afferent(sensory)nuclei

( general and special )


General somatic afferent (sensory)nuclei 一般躯体感觉核

Special somatic afferent (sensory)nuclei 特殊躯体感觉核

Cranial nerve nuclei 脑神经核

General Somatic motor nuclei


Nucleus of oculomotor n.


Nucleus of trochlear n.


Nucleus of abducent n.


Nucleus of hypoglossal n.


GeneralSomatic motor nuclei

Cranial nerve nuclei 脑神经核

Special visceral motor nuclei特殊内脏运动核

Motor nucleus of trigeminal n. 三叉神经运动核

Nucleusof facial n. 面神经

Nucleus ambiguus 疑核

Accessory nucleus副神经核

Special visceral motor nuclei

Cranial nerve nuclei 脑神经核

General visceral motor nuclei一般内脏运动核

Accessory oculomotor nucleus 动眼神经副核

Superior salivatory nucleus


Inferior salivatory nucleus


Dorsal nucleus of vagus n.


●General visceral motor nuclei

Visceral afferent nuclei( general and special )

Cranial nerve nuclei 脑神经核

Nucleus of solitary tract孤束核

Lies in the Medulla obongata

Send out the fibers to form Ⅶ,Ⅸ,Ⅹ cranial n.


Taste and visceral sensation

Cranial nerve nuclei 脑神经核

General somatic afferent nuclei一般躯体感觉核

Mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal n. 三叉神经中脑核

Pontine nucleus of trigeminal n. 三叉神经脑桥核

Spinal nucleus of trigeminal n. 三叉神经脊束核

General somatic afferent nuclei

Cranial nerve nuclei 脑神经核

Special somatic afferent nuclei特殊躯体感觉核

Cochlear nuclei


Ventral cochlear nucleus


Drsal cochlear nucleus


Vestibular nuclei


Special somatic afferent nuclei

non- Cranial nerve nuclei 非脑神经核

■In medulla oblongata

Gracile nucleus 薄束核

Cuneate nucleus 楔束核

Inferior olivary nucleus


■In pons

Pontine nucleus脑桥核

non- Cranial nerve nuclei 非脑神经核

■ in midbrain

inferior colliculus 下丘

Gray matter layers of superior colliculus


Red nucleus红核

Substantia nigra黑质

Non- Cranial nerve nuclei

White matter

Ascending tracts

Medial lemniscus内侧丘系

Spinal lemniscus 脊髓丘系

Trigeminal lemniscus三叉丘系


Descending tracts

Pyramidal tract锥体束

Corticospinal tract皮质脊髓束

Corticonuclear tract皮质核束

White matter — ascending tracts

Medial lemniscus


decussation of medial lemniscus 内侧丘系交叉

White matter — ascending tracts

Spinal lemniscus


White matter — ascending tracts

Trigeminal lemniscus


White matter — ascending tracts

Lateral lemniscus


White matter—descending tracts

Corticospinal tract


Corticonuclear tract


Pyramidal tract 锥体束

Corticonuclear tract


White matter—descending tracts


  • rubrospinal tract

  • 红核脊髓束

  • tectospinal tract

  • 顶盖脊髓束

  • vestibulospinal tract

  • 前庭脊髓束

  • reticulospinal tract

  • 网状脊髓束

Reticular formationof brain stem脑干网状结构

The reticular formation is recognized as the extensivearea outside the more conspicuous fiber bundles and nuclei of the brain stem, in which the grey were intermingled with whiter matter. Its major function may sum up as follows:

Reticular formationof brain stem

■Ascending reticular activating system 上行网状激动系统

maintenance of the conscious state

of cerebeal cortex. 维持大脑觉醒状态

■Viscceromotor control---vital centres生命中枢

Cardiovascular center and respiratory center in medulla oblongata.

■somatomotor control


reticulospinal tract

The transverse section of brain stem----

Medulla oblongata

Lower part (closed part)

  • Two decussations–

    • Decussations of medial lemniscus 内侧丘系交叉

    • Decussations of pyramid 锥体交叉

The transverse section of brain stem----

Medulla oblongata

Upper part (open part)

  • inferior olivary nuculeus and inferior cerebellar peduncle

  • Enlargement of central canal to form the fourth ventricle floor

Tracts: pyramidal tracy

medial lemniscus

inferior cerebellar peduncle


nucleus of hypoglossal n.

dorsal nucleus of vagus n.

nucleus ambiguus.

solitary nucleus,

spinal nucleus of trigeminal n.

The transverse section of brain stem----

■Basilar part基底部

■Tegmentum of pons背盖部


contains a number of new cranial nerve nuclei ,Such as :

nucleus of abducent n.

nucleus of facial n.

vestibular nuclei ,

spinal nucleus of trigeminal n.

longitudinal fibers(pyramidal tract)

transverse fibers arised from the pontine nuclei.

Middle cerebellar peduncle 小脑中脚

The transverse section of brain stem----


includes superior and inferior


■tectum of midbrain中脑顶盖

■Cerebral peduncle大脑脚:

may be divided into 3 parts

● Tegmentum 被盖:

Ascending tracts:

medial lemniscus,

spinal lemniscus,

trigeminal lemniscus.


red nucleus, nucleus of oculomotor n. and troclear n.

The transverse section of brain stem----


■Cerebral peduncle大脑脚

● Tegmentum 被盖

●Substentia nigra 黑质

●Crus cerebri 大脑脚底:

frontopontine Tract 额桥束,

pyramidal tract,


tract 颞枕桥束

Lateral corticospinal tract

Anterior corticospinal tract

superior cerebellar peduncle

  • its fibres arises from the cerebellum, and passes to the opposite thalamus and the opposite red nucleus of the midbrain.

Dorsal cochlear nuclei

Ventral cochlear nuclei

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