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QoS-Based Multicast Routing for Distributing Layered Video to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based NetworksPowerPoint Presentation

QoS-Based Multicast Routing for Distributing Layered Video to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

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### QoS-Based Multicast Routing for Distributing Layered Video to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

Bin Wang and Jennifer C.Hou

Goal: to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

- QoS requirements of heterogeneous receivers, including bandwidth and delay;
- Highest receiving quality for receivers
- Minimize the total network resource consumption
Solution:

- Source:Layered encoding(cummulative)
- Receivers: tradeoff between video quality and available bandwidth
- Scheduling: rate-based link scheduling
- Tree construction on weighted digraph G=(V,E) using the global state and an auxiliary routing table

Global state to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

Link state:

- Available bandwidth: b(l), b:ER+,the link bandwidth function,
- Constant delay: dl,which depends on the capacity,the propagation delay, and the maximum packet size
- Link cost
Node state: available buffer…

Global state:

- The collection of the local node/link state of all the nodes in the network
- Maintained by every node in the network

The Auxiliary Routing Table to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

T is a |V| X H matrix, recording a h-hop maximum bandwidth path :

- P: path
- bw:maximum bandwidth on P
- Neighbour:next hop
- dh=sum(dl): end-end constant delay
*every node maintains a T

Rate-based Scheduling Algorithms to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

- Algorithms: Generalized Processor Sharing,Weighted Fair Queuing,Virtual Clock…
- Traffic model: leaky bucket (R,sigma)
- End-end delay bound on P:
D(r,P)=(sigma+|P|*c)/r+sum(dl)

Traffic Model for Layered Video to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

- Each layer: leaky bucket(R,Sigma)
- Video signal: (Ri,sigmai), i:1~m (#of layers)
- Layer k: (Rk,sigmak),
Rk=sumj=1k(Rj)

sigmak=sumj=1k(sigmaj)

- Layers are selectively forwarded on links

Problem Formulation to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

The one-to-many multicast video distribution session:

s:source

d={j|j=1~n}: receivers

{Dj|j=1~n}:delay requirements

{Rjr|j=1~n}:maximum acceptable rates, layer-k receiver j: Rk<=Rjr<Rk+1

How to construct a tree?

Algorithm Overview to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

- Starting from a tree with only s
- Higher-layer receiver i first
- Select the most appropriate path P from T
- A setup message is sent to i along P, carrying the data structure RECEIVER and D(delay)
- RECEIVER is updated by intermediate nodes, if better path is available
- Next off-tree receiver j is selected by i
- A fork message is sent from i
- A finish message is sent to s if no off-tree node

The RECEVIER data structure to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

RECEIVER.RECEIVER[i] records the least-hop appropriate path P for receiver i:

- OnTreeNode: initialized to s
- path: P, with sufficient bandwidth
- r: the minimum bandwidth ri for delay
- cost: |P|*r, the total bandwidth due to receiver i(only for new branch)
- Rr: maximum acceptable rate Rri
- level: # of layers
- tag: on-tree or off-tree

Path Selection from T to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

- Calculate the minimum bandwidth ri according to deley requirement:
ri>=(sigmak+|p|*c)/(Di-sum(dl))

- Select the least-hop path with T(i,h).bw>=max(ri,Rk)
- No loop
- Reserved bandwidth: max(ri,Rk)
- if no path exists,or ri>Rri, degrading layer
(Lower cost? Best path?)

Next Off-Tree Receiver Selection to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

Higher layer & Smaller cost node first:

- Gk+1=…=Gm=0, Gk<>0
- Select the receiver i from Gk with min(|P|*ri)
- RECEIVER[i].tag=true
- A setup message is sent to i
- i will select next receiver j
- i sends a fork message to RECEIVER[j].OnTreeNode

Path Update to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

Intermediate nodes update D&RECEIVER:

- Delay requirement (D:cumulative delay) Di>=D+(sigmak+|p|*c)/ri+sum(dl)
- Select the minimum-hop path P from T(first entry T(i,h))
- Smaller cost(total bandwidth): |P|*ri
- Update RECEIVER for every receiver i if smaller cost

Dynamic Receiver Join/Leave to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

Goal: seamless transition via incremental changing

Leave:

- Leaf node: leave message is sent upstream,and resource is released by a fork node
- Non-leaf node: just relay incoming downstream messages

Dynamic Receiver Join/Leave(cond.) to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

Join:

- Join request to s with di&Rir
- S multicasts a join message with RECEIVER[i]&D to all(?) on-tree receivers
- Intermediate nodes updates D,and RECEIVER if smaller cost path available
- The leaf receivers send back RECEIVER
- S select a fork node with least cost
- fork message
(Why not use updated T? Least cost?)

Auxiliary Routing Table T Update to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

Compute the h-hop maximum bandwidth paths from the current node to all the other nodes:iterate H times, h=1~H

- Update T(j,h)(j=1~|V): for every neighbour u of j, if no loop
T(j,h).bw=max(T(j,h).bw,min(T(u,h-1).bw,b(u,j)))

- If loop exists(j in T(u,h-1).P), recursively calculate a new T(u,h-1) excluding j
- For complexity, excluding u if loop or limit the scope of recursion
- Run off-line and infrequently

Complexity to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

- # of messages: O(2*|d|)
- T update: exponential in the worst case
If bapassing the loop:

Check every neighbour u of j: O(|V|)

Check loop and bw: O(H)+1

Run H times for every receiver:

O(H)*O(|V|)

So O(H2*|V|2)

Simulation to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

- Topology:
vBNS , switch cluster,random network(Waxman method, which can obtain “real world” networks)

- Simulator: NetSimQ
- Comparing:
maximum bandwidth tree algorithm

Maxemchuk’s algorithm

- Varing parameters: lambda(session arrival rate),|d|,Dj
- Performance metrics: total bandwidth required, percentage of receivers attaining QoS

Maxemchuk’s Algorithm to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

- Minimize bandwidth consumption without considering QoS requirement
- Use modified T-M heuristic
- A variant of steiner tree problem: construct a minimum cost tree for a subset of nodes,
with link cost fixed in the network

- Link cost: basic cost *highest reserved rate
- Construct from higher-rate receivers and then add lower-rate of receivers
- No explicit QoS consideration
- Centralization

Max Bandwidth Tree Algorithm to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

- For Layered-encoded data (cumulative)
- Compute the maximum available bandwidth tree to connect all receivers,receivers are classified by receiving capabilities
- Minimize the sum of satisfaction level
- For shorter path:select the node nearest to source (not guarantee shortest path)
- For bandwidth saving: reduce bandwidth from the receivers

Simulation results to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

Simulation results(cond) to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

Simulation results(cond) to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

Simulation results(cond) to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

Issues: to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

- The original Goal is achieved
- Shortest path? Smallest total cost?The best path?
- Complexity (scalability?):
Global state

T update

Link state update

Complexity!

- A good attemption!

A Better Solution? to Heterogeneous Receivers in Rate-based Networks

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