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A Road-based QoS-aware Multipath Routing for Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Yi-Ling Hsieh and Kuochen Wang Department of Computer Science National Chiao Tung University To appear in GLOBECOM 2012. Outline. Introduction Related work

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a road based qos aware multipath routing for urban vehicular ad hoc networks

A Road-based QoS-aware Multipath Routing for Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Yi-Ling Hsieh and Kuochen Wang

Department of Computer Science

National Chiao Tung University

To appear in GLOBECOM 2012

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Related work
  • Proposed road-based QoS-aware multipath routing protocol for urban VANETs (RMRV)
    • Multiple road-disjoint paths discovery
    • Path life time and life periods prediction
    • Dynamic QoS path switching
  • Simulation
  • Conclusion
  • References
introduction motivation
Introduction – Motivation
  • Stable and efficient routing plays a key role for the success of VANETs
  • Road-based QoS-aware routing has been shown well-suited in urban VANETs [5][8]
    • (better than traditional node-based routing)
  • Multipath routing provides alternative routes once the current route fails

However, existing multipath routing protocols are node-based, which are not suitable for urban VANETs

introduction multipath routing
Introduction – Multipath routing
  • Multipath routing
    • further enhance the route stability
    • provides alternative routes once the current route fails
    • provides concurrent transmission with multiple paths (optional)
  • Existing multipath routing protocols
    • are node-based (not road-based)
    • potential drawback: potential transmission interference if they are multiple paths through the same road sections [14]  disjoint paths discovery
introduction qos routing
Introduction – QoS routing
  • QoS routing in urban VANETs
    • Utilize probability of connectivity and hop count to decide the best QoS path
    • derive/estimate probability of connectivity and hop count with vehicles mobility data (e.g. speed, position, node density)
  • Most of current QoS routing protocols for VANETs are node-based
    • derive a route’s QoS along with route discovery
    • only consider straight roads (e.g. highways) or limited local roads
      • due to inherited weakness of node-based routing

For generic city road topologies, road-based routing approach is preferred

  • Road-based QoS routing
    • IGRP [5]: directly determine a path’s with the assistance of traffic statistics
      • Additional traffic statistics is required; however, it may not reflect the current situation
introduction the proposed routing protocol
Introduction – the proposed routing protocol
  • We propose a road-based QoS-aware multipath routing protocol for urban VANETs (RMRV)
  • RMRV can find multiple road-disjoint paths
  • Predict a path’sfuture lifetime and life periods to adaptively utilize multiple paths
    • We propose a space-time planar approach to predict the connectivity of each road section in a path
  • Dynamic QoS path switching
    • dynamically switch to a path that satisfies the packet delay constraint
      • Packet delay is estimated according to a path’s life periods
proposed road based qos aware multipath routing protocol for urban vanets rmrv
Proposed road-based QoS-aware multipath routing protocol for urban VANETs (RMRV)
  • Problem description
  • How to find multiple road-disjoint paths?
  • Among the multiple paths, we choose the path with longest lifetime

How to estimate a road section’s lifetimeso as to derive a path’s lifetime

  • As time elapses, a road section becomes connected or disconnected

 How to dynamically switch to another path

proposed rmrv multipath discovery
Proposed RMRV – multipath discovery
  • Multipath discovery (route discovery, RD)
    • RD packet: [src, dest, seq #, road section list (RS list)]
      • generated at source and being flooded out, until reaching destination
    • The RS list in an RD packet is updated when the packet enters a new road section
    • RD packet table
      • Every node maintains one, to check whether a received RD packet had been seen
    • Road-disjoint paths
      • RD packet with duplicate RS is dropped
      • (disregarding the beginning and ending RSs)
      • However, duplicate RSs are allowed if not enough multiple paths are available
    • Loop detection
      • e.g. a node in RS3 received an RD packet with RS list [5, 3, 2, 7, 8]
proposed rmrv multipath discovery1
Proposed RMRV – multipath discovery
  • Route reply
    • For each RD packet, the destination node sends a route reply (RR) packet to the source node
    • Along with the RR packet being relayed among RSs, the path’s future connectivity prediction is processed in each RS
road section connectivity problem
Road section connectivity problem
  • Geographical forwarding
    • used to relay data packets through a road section
      • Every node maintains a neighbor table for choosing next hop
      • neighbor table: every node periodically broadcast a HELLO
road section connectivity problem1
Road section connectivity problem
  • A potential problem and its solution
    • As time elapses, a road section may become connected or disconnected, due to node mobility
    • RS life periods prediction path life periods path switching before disconnection
road section connectivity problem space time planar approach
Road section connectivity problem – space-time planar approach

We propose a space-time planar approach to formulate and resolvethe road section connectivity problem

  • A road section’s life period can be derived

 A path’s life period is then derived

path lifetime estimation and qos path switching
Path lifetime estimation and QoS path switching
  • RS life periods is included in the RR packet
    • RR packet piggybacks the relay nodes’ neighbor tables
    • The last node in the RS, e.g. node i, calculates RS C1-C2’s life periods using the space-time planar approach
    • Intersect the derived life periods with the existing life periods piggybacked in the RR packet (so as to reduce RR packet size)
      • The piggybacked neighbor tables are also removed
qos path switching
QoS path switching
  • The source node may switch to a path which is connected currently or satisfies delay constraint
    • Small gaps may be tolerated because of using carry-and-forward
qos path switching1
QoS path switching
  • Packet delay di for path i is due to two kinds of delay
    • Transmission delay (dp)
    • Path disconnection delay (dd)
    • di = dp(i) + dd(i)
qos path switching2
QoS path switching
  • Transmission delay (dp)
    • dij : packet delay through RSij, dij = tp*{2+[(Lij – 2*s)/(Tr/2)]}
      • tpis transmission delay of a hop, which is regarded as a constant [8]
    • dp(i) = ∑dij, for RSij in path i
  • Path disconnection delay (dd)
    • dd is the sum of the mean of each disconnection period

19

simulation
Simulation
  • Simulator: QualNet 5.0
  • Map: a grid map of 1000m x 1000m with 200m interval [8]
  • Total 200 nodes
  • Node mobility trace generator: VanetMobiSim
    • node speed: [0m/s, 20m/s]
  • Radio range: 275m [8]
  • Two-ray ground propagation model [8]
    • With NLOS, only nodes in adjacent road sections are allowed for radio communication. The upper bound distance is set to 80m
  • CBR
    • 10 packets/s
    • Packet size: 512 bytes
    • 2 ~ 10 concurrent CBR connections
conclusion
Conclusion
  • We have presented a road-based QoS-aware multipath routing protocol for urban VANETs (RMRV).
    • To the best of our knowledge, there is no existing road-based multipath routing protocol for VANETs.
  • The proposed RMRV is used to find multiple paths and to estimate paths’ future life periods for QoS path switching.
    • A space-time planar graph approach has been proposed to predict the connectivity of each road section in a path, and thus a path’s future lifetime and life periods can be derived.
conclusion1
Conclusion
  • Simulation results have shown that the proposed RMRV has 12.2% higher packet delivery ratio, shorter 11.5% average end-to-end delay and 34.3% lower control overhead than those of RBVT-R.
  • The proposed RMRV is very suited to high mobility urban VANETs.
references
References
  • M. K. Marina and S. R. Das, "Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing," Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, pp. 969-988, 2006.
  • Cheng-Shiun Wu, Shuo-Cheng Hu and Chih-Shun Hsu” Design of fast restoration multipath routing in VANETs", in Proc. of Computer Symposium (ICS), pp. 73 - 78, 2011.
  • S.-J. Lee, M. Gerla,"Split Multipath Routing with Maximally Disjoint Paths in Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE International Conference on Communications, vol. 10, pp. 3201 - 3205, 2001.
  • X. Huang and Y. Fang, "Performance Study of Node-Disjoint Multipath Routing in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," vol. 58, issue 4, pp. 1942 - 1950, 2009.
references1
References
  • H. Saleet et al., "Intersection-based geographical routing protocol for VANETs: a proposal and analysis," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 60, issue 9, pp. 4560 - 4574, Nov. 2011.
  • M. Jerbi, S.-M. Senouci, R. Meraihi and Y. Ghamri-Doudane, "An improved vehicular ad hoc routing protocol for city environments," in Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 3972 - 3979, 2007.
  • K. Lee, M. Le, J. Haerri and M. Gerla, "Louvre: Landmark overlays for urban vehicular routing environments," in Proc. of IEEE VTC, pp. 1-5, 2008.
  • J. Nzouonta et al., "VANET routing on city roads using real-time vehicular traffic information," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, issue 7, pp. 3609 - 3626, 2009.
references2
References
  • H. Rongxi ,H. Rutagemwa and S. Xuemin, "Differentiated reliable routing in hybrid vehicular ad-hoc networks," in Proc. of International Conference on Communications, pp. 2353-2358, May 2008.
  • Cheng-Shiun Wu, Shuo-Cheng Hu and Chih-Shun Hsu” Design of fast restoration multipath routing in VANETs", in Proc. of Computer Symposium (ICS), pp. 73 - 78, 2011.
  • S. Bitam and A. Mellouk, "QoS swarm bee routing protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks," in Proc. of International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1-5, June 2011.
  • Z. Mo, H. Zhu, K. Makki and N. Pissinou, "MURU: A multi-hop routing protocol for urban vehicular ad hoc networks," in Proc. of 3rd Annual International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems, 2006, pp. 1–8, 2006.
references3
References
  • Y. Gongjun, D.B. Rawat and B.B. Bista, "Provisioning vehicular ad hoc networks with quality of service," in Proc. of International Conference on Broadband, Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications(BWCCA), pp. 102 - 107, 2010.
  • Yufeng Chen, Zhengtao Xiang, Wei Jian and Weirong Jiang, "An Adaptive Cross-Layer Multi-Path Routing Protocol for Urban VANET," in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Automation and Logistics, pp. 603 – 608, 2010.
  • Xiaoxia Huang and Yuguang Fang, "Performance Study of Node-Disjoint Multipath Routing in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 54, issue 4, pp. 1942 - 1950, 2009.
  • Yi-Ling Hsieh and Kuochen Wang, “Road Layout Adaptive Overlay Multicast for Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks,” in Proc. of the IEEE 73rd VTC, pp. 1-5, 2011. (submitted to journal Computer Networks)
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