A road based qos aware multipath routing for urban vehicular ad hoc networks
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A Road-based QoS-aware Multipath Routing for Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Yi-Ling Hsieh and Kuochen Wang Department of Computer Science National Chiao Tung University To appear in GLOBECOM 2012. Outline. Introduction Related work

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A road based qos aware multipath routing for urban vehicular ad hoc networks

A Road-based QoS-aware Multipath Routing for Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Yi-Ling Hsieh and Kuochen Wang

Department of Computer Science

National Chiao Tung University

To appear in GLOBECOM 2012


Outline
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Related work

  • Proposed road-based QoS-aware multipath routing protocol for urban VANETs (RMRV)

    • Multiple road-disjoint paths discovery

    • Path life time and life periods prediction

    • Dynamic QoS path switching

  • Simulation

  • Conclusion

  • References


Introduction motivation
Introduction – Motivation

  • Stable and efficient routing plays a key role for the success of VANETs

  • Road-based QoS-aware routing has been shown well-suited in urban VANETs [5][8]

    • (better than traditional node-based routing)

  • Multipath routing provides alternative routes once the current route fails

    However, existing multipath routing protocols are node-based, which are not suitable for urban VANETs


Introduction multipath routing
Introduction – Multipath routing

  • Multipath routing

    • further enhance the route stability

    • provides alternative routes once the current route fails

    • provides concurrent transmission with multiple paths (optional)

  • Existing multipath routing protocols

    • are node-based (not road-based)

    • potential drawback: potential transmission interference if they are multiple paths through the same road sections [14]  disjoint paths discovery


Introduction qos routing
Introduction – QoS routing

  • QoS routing in urban VANETs

    • Utilize probability of connectivity and hop count to decide the best QoS path

    • derive/estimate probability of connectivity and hop count with vehicles mobility data (e.g. speed, position, node density)

  • Most of current QoS routing protocols for VANETs are node-based

    • derive a route’s QoS along with route discovery

    • only consider straight roads (e.g. highways) or limited local roads

      • due to inherited weakness of node-based routing

        For generic city road topologies, road-based routing approach is preferred

  • Road-based QoS routing

    • IGRP [5]: directly determine a path’s with the assistance of traffic statistics

      • Additional traffic statistics is required; however, it may not reflect the current situation


Introduction the proposed routing protocol
Introduction – the proposed routing protocol

  • We propose a road-based QoS-aware multipath routing protocol for urban VANETs (RMRV)

  • RMRV can find multiple road-disjoint paths

  • Predict a path’sfuture lifetime and life periods to adaptively utilize multiple paths

    • We propose a space-time planar approach to predict the connectivity of each road section in a path

  • Dynamic QoS path switching

    • dynamically switch to a path that satisfies the packet delay constraint

      • Packet delay is estimated according to a path’s life periods



Proposed road based qos aware multipath routing protocol for urban vanets rmrv
Proposed road-based QoS-aware multipath routing protocol for urban VANETs (RMRV)

  • Problem description

  • How to find multiple road-disjoint paths?

  • Among the multiple paths, we choose the path with longest lifetime

    How to estimate a road section’s lifetimeso as to derive a path’s lifetime

  • As time elapses, a road section becomes connected or disconnected

     How to dynamically switch to another path


Proposed rmrv multipath discovery
Proposed RMRV – multipath discovery urban VANETs (RMRV)

  • Multipath discovery (route discovery, RD)

    • RD packet: [src, dest, seq #, road section list (RS list)]

      • generated at source and being flooded out, until reaching destination

    • The RS list in an RD packet is updated when the packet enters a new road section

    • RD packet table

      • Every node maintains one, to check whether a received RD packet had been seen

    • Road-disjoint paths

      • RD packet with duplicate RS is dropped

      • (disregarding the beginning and ending RSs)

      • However, duplicate RSs are allowed if not enough multiple paths are available

    • Loop detection

      • e.g. a node in RS3 received an RD packet with RS list [5, 3, 2, 7, 8]


Proposed rmrv multipath discovery1
Proposed RMRV – multipath discovery urban VANETs (RMRV)

  • Route reply

    • For each RD packet, the destination node sends a route reply (RR) packet to the source node

    • Along with the RR packet being relayed among RSs, the path’s future connectivity prediction is processed in each RS


Road section connectivity problem
Road section connectivity problem urban VANETs (RMRV)

  • Geographical forwarding

    • used to relay data packets through a road section

      • Every node maintains a neighbor table for choosing next hop

      • neighbor table: every node periodically broadcast a HELLO


Road section connectivity problem1
Road section connectivity problem urban VANETs (RMRV)

  • A potential problem and its solution

    • As time elapses, a road section may become connected or disconnected, due to node mobility

    • RS life periods prediction path life periods path switching before disconnection


Road section connectivity problem space time planar approach
Road section connectivity problem – space-time planar approach

We propose a space-time planar approach to formulate and resolvethe road section connectivity problem

  • A road section’s life period can be derived

     A path’s life period is then derived


Path lifetime estimation and qos path switching
Path lifetime estimation and QoS path switching approach

  • RS life periods is included in the RR packet

    • RR packet piggybacks the relay nodes’ neighbor tables

    • The last node in the RS, e.g. node i, calculates RS C1-C2’s life periods using the space-time planar approach

    • Intersect the derived life periods with the existing life periods piggybacked in the RR packet (so as to reduce RR packet size)

      • The piggybacked neighbor tables are also removed


Qos path switching
QoS path switching approach

  • The source node may switch to a path which is connected currently or satisfies delay constraint

    • Small gaps may be tolerated because of using carry-and-forward


Qos path switching1
QoS path switching approach

  • Packet delay di for path i is due to two kinds of delay

    • Transmission delay (dp)

    • Path disconnection delay (dd)

    • di = dp(i) + dd(i)


Qos path switching2
QoS path switching approach

  • Transmission delay (dp)

    • dij : packet delay through RSij, dij = tp*{2+[(Lij – 2*s)/(Tr/2)]}

      • tpis transmission delay of a hop, which is regarded as a constant [8]

    • dp(i) = ∑dij, for RSij in path i

  • Path disconnection delay (dd)

    • dd is the sum of the mean of each disconnection period

19


Simulation
Simulation approach

  • Simulator: QualNet 5.0

  • Map: a grid map of 1000m x 1000m with 200m interval [8]

  • Total 200 nodes

  • Node mobility trace generator: VanetMobiSim

    • node speed: [0m/s, 20m/s]

  • Radio range: 275m [8]

  • Two-ray ground propagation model [8]

    • With NLOS, only nodes in adjacent road sections are allowed for radio communication. The upper bound distance is set to 80m

  • CBR

    • 10 packets/s

    • Packet size: 512 bytes

    • 2 ~ 10 concurrent CBR connections


Simulation1
Simulation approach


Simulation2
Simulation approach


Simulation3
Simulation approach


Conclusion
Conclusion approach

  • We have presented a road-based QoS-aware multipath routing protocol for urban VANETs (RMRV).

    • To the best of our knowledge, there is no existing road-based multipath routing protocol for VANETs.

  • The proposed RMRV is used to find multiple paths and to estimate paths’ future life periods for QoS path switching.

    • A space-time planar graph approach has been proposed to predict the connectivity of each road section in a path, and thus a path’s future lifetime and life periods can be derived.


Conclusion1
Conclusion approach

  • Simulation results have shown that the proposed RMRV has 12.2% higher packet delivery ratio, shorter 11.5% average end-to-end delay and 34.3% lower control overhead than those of RBVT-R.

  • The proposed RMRV is very suited to high mobility urban VANETs.


References
References approach

  • M. K. Marina and S. R. Das, "Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing," Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, pp. 969-988, 2006.

  • Cheng-Shiun Wu, Shuo-Cheng Hu and Chih-Shun Hsu” Design of fast restoration multipath routing in VANETs", in Proc. of Computer Symposium (ICS), pp. 73 - 78, 2011.

  • S.-J. Lee, M. Gerla,"Split Multipath Routing with Maximally Disjoint Paths in Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE International Conference on Communications, vol. 10, pp. 3201 - 3205, 2001.

  • X. Huang and Y. Fang, "Performance Study of Node-Disjoint Multipath Routing in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," vol. 58, issue 4, pp. 1942 - 1950, 2009.


References1
References approach

  • H. Saleet et al., "Intersection-based geographical routing protocol for VANETs: a proposal and analysis," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 60, issue 9, pp. 4560 - 4574, Nov. 2011.

  • M. Jerbi, S.-M. Senouci, R. Meraihi and Y. Ghamri-Doudane, "An improved vehicular ad hoc routing protocol for city environments," in Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 3972 - 3979, 2007.

  • K. Lee, M. Le, J. Haerri and M. Gerla, "Louvre: Landmark overlays for urban vehicular routing environments," in Proc. of IEEE VTC, pp. 1-5, 2008.

  • J. Nzouonta et al., "VANET routing on city roads using real-time vehicular traffic information," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, issue 7, pp. 3609 - 3626, 2009.


References2
References approach

  • H. Rongxi ,H. Rutagemwa and S. Xuemin, "Differentiated reliable routing in hybrid vehicular ad-hoc networks," in Proc. of International Conference on Communications, pp. 2353-2358, May 2008.

  • Cheng-Shiun Wu, Shuo-Cheng Hu and Chih-Shun Hsu” Design of fast restoration multipath routing in VANETs", in Proc. of Computer Symposium (ICS), pp. 73 - 78, 2011.

  • S. Bitam and A. Mellouk, "QoS swarm bee routing protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks," in Proc. of International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1-5, June 2011.

  • Z. Mo, H. Zhu, K. Makki and N. Pissinou, "MURU: A multi-hop routing protocol for urban vehicular ad hoc networks," in Proc. of 3rd Annual International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems, 2006, pp. 1–8, 2006.


References3
References approach

  • Y. Gongjun, D.B. Rawat and B.B. Bista, "Provisioning vehicular ad hoc networks with quality of service," in Proc. of International Conference on Broadband, Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications(BWCCA), pp. 102 - 107, 2010.

  • Yufeng Chen, Zhengtao Xiang, Wei Jian and Weirong Jiang, "An Adaptive Cross-Layer Multi-Path Routing Protocol for Urban VANET," in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Automation and Logistics, pp. 603 – 608, 2010.

  • Xiaoxia Huang and Yuguang Fang, "Performance Study of Node-Disjoint Multipath Routing in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 54, issue 4, pp. 1942 - 1950, 2009.

  • Yi-Ling Hsieh and Kuochen Wang, “Road Layout Adaptive Overlay Multicast for Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks,” in Proc. of the IEEE 73rd VTC, pp. 1-5, 2011. (submitted to journal Computer Networks)


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