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INTRODUCTION TO NEW THEORY OF FLIGHT REVEALING THE SECRET OF FLIGHT. UNDERSTANDING WHY IT IS POSSIBLE TO FLY JOHAN HOFFMAN JOHAN JANSSON CLAES JOHNSON. WEB SITE: THE SECRET OF FLIGHT. http://secretofflight.wordpress.com/ MATHEMATICS FLUID MECHANICS COMPUTATION MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS

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introduction to new theory of flight revealing the secret of flight

INTRODUCTION TONEW THEORY OF FLIGHTREVEALINGTHE SECRET OF FLIGHT

UNDERSTANDING

WHY IT IS POSSIBLE TO FLY

JOHAN HOFFMAN JOHAN JANSSON CLAES JOHNSON

web site the secret of flight
WEB SITE: THE SECRET OF FLIGHT

http://secretofflight.wordpress.com/

  • MATHEMATICS
  • FLUID MECHANICS
  • COMPUTATION
  • MEASUREMENT
  • APPLICATIONS
  • HISTORY
new theory su bmitted to aiaa
NEW THEORY SUBMITTED TO AIAA
  • MAIN JOURNAL OF AERONAUTICS
  • NOW UNDER SCRUTINY OF EXPERTS
  • FOLLOW THE REVIEW PROCESS ON WEB SITE
  • FIRST VERSION PRESENTED IN NORMAT 2009
old theory
OLD THEORY
  • KUTTA-ZHUKOVSKY 1904
  • FATHERS OF MODERN AERONAUTICS
  • PRANDTL 1904
  • FATHER OF MODERN FLUID MECHANICS
  • KZP THEORY
scientific mathematical theories
SCIENTIFIC MATHEMATICAL THEORIES

FOR UNEDUCATED:

1. TRIVIAL AND CORRECT

2. TRIVIAL AND INCORRECT

FOR EDUCATED:

3. NON-TRIVIAL AND INCORRECT: OLD

4. NON-TRIVIAL AND CORRECT: NEW

new theory
NEW THEORY
  • PHYSICAL
  • MATHEMATICAL
  • CORRECT
  • DOES REVEAL THE SECRET
  • USEFUL
old theory1
OLD THEORY
  • UNPHYSICAL
  • UNMATHEMATICAL
  • INCORRECT
  • DOES NOT REVEAL THE SECRET
  • DANGEROUS
the secret l d 10 70
THE SECRET: L/D = 10 - 70
  • SURPRISING
  • INGENIOUS
  • ELEGANT
  • INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW
  • SLIGHTLY VISCOUS FLOW
is theory needed
IS THEORY NEEDED?
  • BIRDS HAVE LEARNED TO FLY WITHOUT
  • THEORY OF FLIGHT
  • BUT IT TOOK 100 MILLION YEARS
  • FROM DINOSAUR TO ARCHAEOPETRYX
  • HUMANS HAVE LEARNED TO FLY WITHOUT
  • THEORY OF FLIGHT
  • BUT IT TOOK 500 YEARS
  • FROM DA VINCI TO SUCCESS: GOSSAMER CONDOR 1978
  • BECAUSE OF LACK OF THEORY!!
new york times 2003 chang
NEW YORK TIMES 2003 (CHANG)

To those who fear flying, it is probably disconcerting that physicists and aeronautical engineers still passionately debate the fundamental issue underlying this endeavor:

WHAT KEEPS PLANES IN THE AIR?

nasa lists incorrect theories
NASA LISTS INCORRECT THEORIES
  • LONGER DISTANCE
  • SKIPPING STONE
  • VENTURI
  • BUT NO THEORY CLAIMED TO BE CORRECT!!
  • NASA DOES NOT SEEM TO KNOW WHAT KEEPS PLANES IN THE AIR!!
hoffren 2001 aiaa
HOFFREN 2001 AIAA
  • A SATISFACTORY THEORY OF LIFT IS STILL LACKING
  • THERE IS A GENUINE NEED FOR ONE
what keeps planes in the air
WHAT KEEPS PLANES IN THE AIR?
  • INCORRECT THEORY OK AS LONG AS YOU DON’T USE IT
  • NOT USEFUL
  • NEW THEORY: CORRECT: USEFUL
why correct theory only 2009
WHYCORRECT THEORY ONLY 2009?
  • COMPUTE TURBULENT SOLUTIONS OF
  • NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS + SLIP BC
  • DIRECT SIMULATION WITHOUT TURBULENCE MODELING
  • POSSIBLE WITH ~ 1 MILLION MESH POINTS
  • COMPUTATION TELLS THE TRUTH
  • STUDY REVEALS THE SECRET
to understand stability
TO UNDERSTAND: STABILITY
  • STABILITY - INSTABILITY OF FLUID MOTION
  • STABLE COMPUTABLE ASPECTS OF TURBULENT FLOW
  • LIFT DRAG MOMENTS..: COMPUTABLE
  • ALL YOU MAY WANT TO KNOW: COMPUTABLE
from cylinder to airfoil rounded leading trailing edge underst cyl understand airfoil
FROM CYLINDER TO AIRFOIL: ROUNDED LEADING + TRAILING EDGEUNDERST CYL = UNDERSTAND AIRFOIL
short story theories of flight
SHORT STORY: THEORIES OF FLIGHT
  • NEWTON 17H MATH: IMPOSSIBLE: WRONG
  • D’ALEMBERT 18TH MATH: IMPOSSIBLE: WRONG
  • WRIGHT BROTHERS 1903 REAL EXP : POSSIBLE
  • KUTTA-ZHUKOVSKY 1904 MATH: POSSIBLE: WRONG: OLD THEORY OF FLIGHT
  • HOFFMAN-JOHNSON 2009 MATH: POSSIBLE: RIGHT: NEW THEORY OF FLIGHT
new vs old theory
NEW VS OLD THEORY
  • NEW THEORY REVEALS THE SECRET OF FLIGHT
  • OLD THEORY HIDES THE SECRET OF FLIGHT
  • OLD: RULING PARADIGM
  • OLD: NOT FUNCTIONAL
  • NEW INCOMPATIBLE WITH OLD
  • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION A LA KUHN
lift and drag of long wing
LIFT AND DRAG OF LONG WING
  • SUCTION ON UPPER LEADING EDGE/SURFACE:
  • LIFT + NEGATIVE DRAG
  • PUSH ON LOWER LEADING EDGE/SURFACE:
  • LIFT + POSITIVE DRAG
  • FLOW SEPARATES AT TRAILING EDGE WITHOUT PRESSURE RISE/DROP: ELEGANT SEPARATION
observation
OBSERVATION

LIFT

  • UPPER LEADING EDGE SUCTION
  • LOWER LEADING EDGE PUSH

DRAG

  • LEADING EDGE PUSH/SUCTION
  • SEPARATION WITHOUT PRESSURE RISE/DROP
  • DOWNWASH
understanding theory
UNDERSTANDING: THEORY
  • MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PHYSICS
  • ASSUMPTIONS

MATHEMATICAL MODEL = EQUATION:

  • NAVIER-STOKES + BC: GENERAL
  • LAPLACE + BC: SPECIAL
  • MATHEMATICAL THEORY: SOLVE EQUATION
laplace eqn potential flow
LAPLACE EQN: POTENTIAL FLOW
  • INCOMPRESSIBLE: CORRECT FOR SUBSONIC FLIGHT
  • INVISCID - SMALL VISCOSITY: CORRECT
  • SLIP BOUNDARY CONDITION: SMALL SKIN FRICTION: CORRECT
  • IRROTATIONAL?? NO VORTICES
  • STATIONARY??
  • 2D??
  • V = GRADIENT OF HARMONIC FUNCTION
  • 2D FOR CYLINDER LONG WING
  • 1 + 2 + 3 VALID!! EVERYWHERE!! NAVIER-STOKES
  • 4 + 5 +6 VALID?? SOMEWHERE BUT NOT EVERYWHERE!! LAPLACE??
laplace vs navier stokes
LAPLACE VS NAVIER-STOKES

LAPLACE SIMPLIFIED VERSION OF NAVIER-STOKES

POTENTIAL SOLUTION:

  • 2D
  • STATIONARY
  • IRROTATIONAL
  • LAPLACE SOLUTIONS NOT TURBULENT
  • NAVIER-STOKES SOLUTIONS TURBULENT
potential flow bernoulli s law
POTENTIAL FLOW: BERNOULLI’S LAW

½ V2 + P = CONSTANT

  • HIGH PRESSURE P – LOW VELOCITY V
  • LOW PRESSURE P – HIGH VELOCITY V
potential flow
POTENTIAL FLOW
  • SEPARATION BEFORE TRAILING EDGE
  • HIGH PRESSURE AT SEPARATION REQUIRED TO BRING FLOW TO STAGNATION
  • NO DOWNWASH
  • MATHEMATICAL SOLUTION
  • BUT NOT OBSERVED IN REALITY
  • UNPHYSICAL!! WHY??
what s wrong with potential flow
WHAT’S WRONG WITH POTENTIAL FLOW??

D’ALEMBERT COULD NOT UNDERSTAND 1752

d alembert s paradox 1752
D’ALEMBERT’S PARADOX 1752

It seems to me that the theory (potential flow), developed in all possible rigor, gives, at least in several cases, a strictly vanishing resistance, a singular paradox which I leave to future Geometers to elucidate”.

what s wrong with potential flow1
WHAT’S WRONG WITH POTENTIAL FLOW??

EULER COULD NOT UNDERSTAND

???? 18TH

POTENTIAL FLOW SOLVES

EULER’S EQNS

what s wrong with potential flow2
WHAT’S WRONG WITH POTENTIAL FLOW??

LAPLACE COULD NOT UNDERSTAND

???? 19TH

POTENTIAL FLOW SOLVES

LAPLACE’S EQN

what s wrong with potential flow3
WHAT’S WRONG WITH POTENTIAL FLOW??

CAUCHY COULD NOT UNDERSTAND

???? 19TH

MASTER OF

HARMONIC FCNS

what s wrong with potential flow4
WHAT’S WRONG WITH POTENTIAL FLOW??

POISSON COULD NOT UNDERSTAND

??? 19TH

NOBODY COULD

UNDERSTAND

kutta zhukovsky 1904
KUTTA-ZHUKOVSKY 1904
  • SEPARATION AT TRAILING EDGE BY ADDING CIRCULATION
  • LIFT BUT NO DRAG
ludwig prandtl 1904
LUDWIG PRANDTL 1904
  • SLIP BOUNDARY CONDITION IS WRONG
  • NO-SLIP IS RIGHT:
  • THIN BOUNDARY LAYER
  • DRAG BUT NO LIFT
incorrect incorrect correct
INCORRECT + INCORRECT = CORRECT?
  • (-1) x (-1) = 1
  • NO!!
  • PRANDTL INCORRECT
  • KUTTA-ZHUKOVSKY INCORRECT
  • WHAT IS THEN CORRECT?
resolution of d alembert s paradox
RESOLUTION OF D’ALEMBERT’S PARADOX
  • JOHAN HOFFMAN AND CLAES JOHNSON
  • J MATHEMATICAL FLUID MECHANICS 2008
  • FINALLY AFTER 256 YEARS
  • SPIN-OFF: SECRET OF FLIGHT 2012
trouble trailing edge
TROUBLE: TRAILING EDGE
  • POTENTIAL FLOW SEPARATION:
  • UNPHYSICAL UNSTABLE: OPPOSING FLOW
  • POTENTIAL FLOW ATTACHMENT:
  • PHYSICAL STABLE
  • NON-POTENTIAL FLOW SEPARATION??
  • 3D ROTATIONAL SEPARATION: PHYSICAL STABLE: AVOIDS OPPOSING FLOW
3d separation at trailing edge
3D SEPARATION AT TRAILING EDGE
  • 3D ROTATIONAL SEPARATION:
  • WITHOUT PRESSURE RISE
  • WITHOUT PRESSURE DROP: WAKE
  • ELEGANT SEPARATION
  • PRESSURE RISE:
  • 2D IRROTATIONAL POTEN. FLOW SEPARATION
  • PRESSURE DROP: WAKE SEPARATION
the secret
THE SECRET
  • POTENTIAL FLOW:
  • BEFORE SEPARATION
  • NON-POTENTIAL AT SEPARATION:
  • 3D ROTATIONAL SLIP SEPARATION WITH POINT STAGNATION
  • 256 YEARS: 1752 - 2008 TO UNDERSTAND
from cylinder to airfoil rounded leading trailing edge underst cyl understand airfoil1
FROM CYLINDER TO AIRFOIL: ROUNDED LEADING + TRAILING EDGEUNDERST CYL = UNDERSTAND AIRFOIL
the secret1
THE SECRET
  • INCOMPRESSIBLE
  • SLIGHTLY VISCOUS FLOW
  • POTENTIAL FLOW BEFORE SEPARATION
  • 3D TRAILING EDGE SEPARATION WITHOUT PRESSURE RISE/DROP
secret of flight
SECRET OF FLIGHT
  • HOW TO SEPARATE IN AN ELEGANT WAY:
  • WITHOUT PRESSURE RISE/DROP
  • ENGAGEMENT: EASY
  • DIVORCE: DIFFICULT
  • THE TRICK: ELEGANT DIVORCE
the secret of flight web site
THE SECRET OF FLIGHT WEB SITE
  • FULL STORY
  • MATHEMATICS
  • PHYSICS
  • COMPUTATION
  • APPLICATIONS: SAILING, SWIMMING,….
  • BACKGROUND
  • HISTORY INCORRECT THEORY…
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