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Tissues. Tissue divided into four subtypes Epithelial tissue: covers and protects body surfaces, lines body cavities, specializes in moving substances into and out of the blood (secretions, excretions, and absorptions), and forms many glands.

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Tissues

Tissue divided into four subtypes

Epithelial tissue: covers and protects body surfaces, lines

body cavities, specializes in moving substances into and

out of the blood (secretions, excretions, and absorptions),

and forms many glands.

Connective tissue: specialized to support he body and its parts,

to connect and hold them together, to transport substances

through the body, and to protect it form foreign invaders.

Muscle tissue: produces movement; moves the body and its

parts

Nervous tissue: most complex tissue in the body; specializes

in communication between the various parts of the body and

in integration of their activities


Types and locations of epithelial tissue

Subdivided into two types

Membranous (covering or lining) epithelium: cover the body

and some of its parts, and some line the serous cavities

(pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal ), the blood and lymphatic

vessels, and the respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary

urinary tracts

Glandularepithelium: grouped in solid cords or specializes

follicles that form the secretory units of endocrine and

exocrine glands

Functions of epithelial tissue

Protection: most important function; relatively tough and

impermeable covering of the skin-protects body from

mechanical and chemical injury and from invading bacteria

and other disease-causing microorganisms

Sensory: specialized for sensory functions found in the skin,

nose, eye, and ear.

Secretion: includes hormones, mucus, digestive juices, sweat


Absorption: lining of the gut, respiratory tract allows

for the absorption of nutrients from the gut and the exchange

of respiratory gases between air in the lungs and the blood

Excretion: lining of kidney tubules makes the excretion and

concentration of excretory products of excretory products

in the urine possible.

Generalizations about epithelial tissue

Attaches to an underlying layer of connective tissue by means

of a thin non-cellular layer of adhesive, permeable material

called the basement membrane

Contains no blood vessels (avasular), oxygen and nutrients

Diffuse from capillaries in the underlying connective tissue

Through the permeable basement to reach living cells

Endure considerable wear and tear, frequently go through

cell division in many locations, new cells replace old or

destroyed cells in the skin or in the lining of gut or respiratory

tract.


Classifications of epithelial tissue

Classifications of tissue named by number of layers and shape of

cells that make up the cell

Shape of membranous epithelial tissue cells may be used for

classification purposes

Four cell shapes

Squamouscells: are flat and plate like.

Cuboidalcells: are cube-shaped.

Columnarcells: higher than they are wide and appear narrow

and cylindrical

Pseudostratifiedcolumnar: only one layer of oddly shaped

columnar cells . Touches the basement membrane, tops of

some do not fully extend to the surface of the membrane.

Some of the nuclei are near the top and some near the bottom.

Classifications based on layers of cells

Simpleepithelium: cells in a single layers

Stratifiedepithelium: cells are layered one on another


Squamous cell

Flat and platelike


SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

This picture shows the lining of an artery, one location for this type of tissue.


SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM

Simple cuboidal epithelium

Cuboidal epithelium is found in glands and in the lining of the kidney tubules as well as in the ducts of the glands.


SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

These cells line your respiratory and digestive tracts.


CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

Ciliated columnar epithelial cells are found mainly in the tracheal and bronchial regions of the pulmonary system and also in the fallopian tubes of the female reproductive system.

















Holocrine Gland


Merocrine Gland


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