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February 24, 2014. Chemical Formulas The Mole One-Step Molar Conversions. Materials. Calculator Periodic Table A good attitude about math. Chemical Formulas. Covalent: C 8 H 18 Octane # Carbon: 8 # Hydrogen: 18 Ionic: Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Aluminum Sulfate # Aluminum: 2 # Sulfur: 3

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February 24 2014
February 24, 2014

  • Chemical Formulas

  • The Mole

  • One-Step Molar Conversions


Materials
Materials

  • Calculator

  • Periodic Table

  • A good attitude about math


Chemical formulas
Chemical Formulas

  • Covalent: C8H18

    • Octane

    • # Carbon: 8

    • # Hydrogen: 18

  • Ionic: Al2(SO4)3

    • Aluminum Sulfate

    • # Aluminum: 2

    • # Sulfur: 3

    • # Oxygen: 12

      • (4 O’s in each sulfate, 3 sulfates in the compound, 3 x 4 = 12)


Formula mass
Formula Mass

  • The mass of one molecule, formula unit, or ion.

  • Calculate by adding atomic masses together from the periodic table.

  • Units: amu (atomic mass unit)


Example hcl
Example: HCl

  • Mass H + Mass Cl

  • 1.0079 + 35.453 = 36.4069 amu


Example nh 4 no 3
Example: NH4NO3

  • Mass N + 4(Mass H) + Mass N + 3(Mass O)

  • 14.007 + 4(1.0079) + 14.007 + 3(15.999) =

  • 80.0426 amu

  • OR

  • 2(Mass N) + 4(Mass H) + 3(Mass O)

  • 2(14.007) + 4(1.0079) + 3(15.999) =

  • 80.0426 amu


Example po 4 3
Example: PO43-

  • Mass P + 4(Mass O)

  • 30.974 + 4(15.999) = 94.97 amu

  • The charge does not affect the mass because the mass of an electron is so very small that it is negligible (able to be ignored).



The mole
The Mole

  • 1 mole = 6.02 × 1023 particles

  • It is the number of atoms in exactly 12.0 g of carbon-12

  • It is used the same way as:

    • A dozen (12)

    • A pair (2)

    • A score (20)

Avogadro’s number


How did they come up with 6 02 x 10 23 anyway
How did they come up with 6.02 x 1023anyway?

  • If you divide the charge on a mole of electrons by the charge on a single electron you obtain a value of Avogadro’s number of 6.02214154 x 1023 particles per mole.


Chemical formulas1
Chemical Formulas

  • Covalent: C8H18

    • Octane

    • Moles Octane: 1

    • Moles Carbon: 8

    • Moles Hydrogen: 18

  • Ionic: Al2(SO4)3

    • Aluminum Sulfate

    • Moles aluminum sulfate: 1

    • Moles Aluminum: 2

    • Moles Sulfur: 3

    • Moles Oxygen: 12


Molar mass
Molar Mass

  • Mass of one mole(6.022 × 1023) of any molecule, formula unit, or ion.

  • Calculate by adding atomic masses together from the periodic table.

  • Units: g/mol


Example h 2 so 4
Example: H2SO4

  • 2(Mass H) + Mass S + 4(Mass O)

  • 2(1.0079) + 32.066 + 4(15.999)

  • 98.0178 g/mol


Example ca no 3 2
Example: Ca(NO3)2

  • Mass Ca + 2(Mass N) + 6(Mass O)

  • 40.078 + 2(14.007) + 6(15.999) =

  • 164.086 g/mol

  • OR

  • Mass Ca + 2((Mass N) + 3(Mass O))

  • 40.078 + 2((14.007) + 3(15.999)) =

  • 164.086 g/mol


Molar conversions
Molar Conversions

Amount in

moles

Mass in

grams

  • Divide by the molar mass

  • Multiply by the molar mass


Example how many moles are in 2 0 g calcium chloride
Example: How many moles are in 2.0 g calcium chloride?

  • Start with: g

  • End with: moles

  • Math: divide by molar mass

  • Molar mass of calcium chloride, CaCl2

  • 40.078 + 2(35.453) = 110.984 g/mol

  • 2.0 g CaCl2= 0.018 mol

    110.984 g/mol


Example how many grams are in 1 5 mol potassium iodide
Example: How many grams are in 1.5 molpotassium iodide?

  • Start with: moles

  • End with: g

  • Math: multiply by molar mass

  • Molar mass of potassium iodide, KI

  • 39.098 + 126.90 = 165.998 g/mol

  • 1.5 mol x 165.998 g/mol = 248.997 g


Molar conversions1
Molar Conversions

  • Number of particles

  • Formula unit

  • Molecule

  • Ion

  • Atom

Amount in

moles

Multiply by

Avogadro’s #

Divide by

Avogadro’s #


Example how many formula units are in 6 0 mol calcium bromide
Example: How many formula units are in 6.0 molcalcium bromide?

  • Start with: mol

  • End with: formula units (particles)

  • Math: multiply by Avogadro’s number

  • 6.0 mol x 6.02 x 1023 =3.612 x 1024 f. units

  • Calculator Help: Use the EE button

  • EE = x 10

  • 6.02 x 1023 = 6.02EE23


Example how many moles are in 5 0 10 22 molecules h 2
Example: How many moles are in 5.0 × 1022 molecules H2?

  • Start with: molecules (particles)

  • End with: moles

  • Math: divide by Avogadro’s number

  • 5.0 x 1022 molecules= 0.083 mol

  • 6.02 x 1023 molecules/mol

  • Calculator Help: Use the EE button

  • 6.02 x 1023 = 6.02EE23


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