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February 24, 2014. Chemical Formulas The Mole One-Step Molar Conversions. Materials. Calculator Periodic Table A good attitude about math. Chemical Formulas. Covalent: C 8 H 18 Octane # Carbon: 8 # Hydrogen: 18 Ionic: Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Aluminum Sulfate # Aluminum: 2 # Sulfur: 3

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february 24 2014
February 24, 2014
  • Chemical Formulas
  • The Mole
  • One-Step Molar Conversions
materials
Materials
  • Calculator
  • Periodic Table
  • A good attitude about math
chemical formulas
Chemical Formulas
  • Covalent: C8H18
    • Octane
    • # Carbon: 8
    • # Hydrogen: 18
  • Ionic: Al2(SO4)3
    • Aluminum Sulfate
    • # Aluminum: 2
    • # Sulfur: 3
    • # Oxygen: 12
      • (4 O’s in each sulfate, 3 sulfates in the compound, 3 x 4 = 12)
formula mass
Formula Mass
  • The mass of one molecule, formula unit, or ion.
  • Calculate by adding atomic masses together from the periodic table.
  • Units: amu (atomic mass unit)
example hcl
Example: HCl
  • Mass H + Mass Cl
  • 1.0079 + 35.453 = 36.4069 amu
example nh 4 no 3
Example: NH4NO3
  • Mass N + 4(Mass H) + Mass N + 3(Mass O)
  • 14.007 + 4(1.0079) + 14.007 + 3(15.999) =
  • 80.0426 amu
  • OR
  • 2(Mass N) + 4(Mass H) + 3(Mass O)
  • 2(14.007) + 4(1.0079) + 3(15.999) =
  • 80.0426 amu
example po 4 3
Example: PO43-
  • Mass P + 4(Mass O)
  • 30.974 + 4(15.999) = 94.97 amu
  • The charge does not affect the mass because the mass of an electron is so very small that it is negligible (able to be ignored).
the mole
The Mole
  • 1 mole = 6.02 × 1023 particles
  • It is the number of atoms in exactly 12.0 g of carbon-12
  • It is used the same way as:
    • A dozen (12)
    • A pair (2)
    • A score (20)

Avogadro’s number

how did they come up with 6 02 x 10 23 anyway
How did they come up with 6.02 x 1023anyway?
  • If you divide the charge on a mole of electrons by the charge on a single electron you obtain a value of Avogadro’s number of 6.02214154 x 1023 particles per mole.
chemical formulas1
Chemical Formulas
  • Covalent: C8H18
    • Octane
    • Moles Octane: 1
    • Moles Carbon: 8
    • Moles Hydrogen: 18
  • Ionic: Al2(SO4)3
    • Aluminum Sulfate
    • Moles aluminum sulfate: 1
    • Moles Aluminum: 2
    • Moles Sulfur: 3
    • Moles Oxygen: 12
molar mass
Molar Mass
  • Mass of one mole(6.022 × 1023) of any molecule, formula unit, or ion.
  • Calculate by adding atomic masses together from the periodic table.
  • Units: g/mol
example h 2 so 4
Example: H2SO4
  • 2(Mass H) + Mass S + 4(Mass O)
  • 2(1.0079) + 32.066 + 4(15.999)
  • 98.0178 g/mol
example ca no 3 2
Example: Ca(NO3)2
  • Mass Ca + 2(Mass N) + 6(Mass O)
  • 40.078 + 2(14.007) + 6(15.999) =
  • 164.086 g/mol
  • OR
  • Mass Ca + 2((Mass N) + 3(Mass O))
  • 40.078 + 2((14.007) + 3(15.999)) =
  • 164.086 g/mol
molar conversions
Molar Conversions

Amount in

moles

Mass in

grams

  • Divide by the molar mass
  • Multiply by the molar mass
example how many moles are in 2 0 g calcium chloride
Example: How many moles are in 2.0 g calcium chloride?
  • Start with: g
  • End with: moles
  • Math: divide by molar mass
  • Molar mass of calcium chloride, CaCl2
  • 40.078 + 2(35.453) = 110.984 g/mol
  • 2.0 g CaCl2= 0.018 mol

110.984 g/mol

example how many grams are in 1 5 mol potassium iodide
Example: How many grams are in 1.5 molpotassium iodide?
  • Start with: moles
  • End with: g
  • Math: multiply by molar mass
  • Molar mass of potassium iodide, KI
  • 39.098 + 126.90 = 165.998 g/mol
  • 1.5 mol x 165.998 g/mol = 248.997 g
molar conversions1
Molar Conversions
  • Number of particles
  • Formula unit
  • Molecule
  • Ion
  • Atom

Amount in

moles

Multiply by

Avogadro’s #

Divide by

Avogadro’s #

example how many formula units are in 6 0 mol calcium bromide
Example: How many formula units are in 6.0 molcalcium bromide?
  • Start with: mol
  • End with: formula units (particles)
  • Math: multiply by Avogadro’s number
  • 6.0 mol x 6.02 x 1023 =3.612 x 1024 f. units
  • Calculator Help: Use the EE button
  • EE = x 10
  • 6.02 x 1023 = 6.02EE23
example how many moles are in 5 0 10 22 molecules h 2
Example: How many moles are in 5.0 × 1022 molecules H2?
  • Start with: molecules (particles)
  • End with: moles
  • Math: divide by Avogadro’s number
  • 5.0 x 1022 molecules= 0.083 mol
  • 6.02 x 1023 molecules/mol
  • Calculator Help: Use the EE button
  • 6.02 x 1023 = 6.02EE23
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