Aerobic general conditioning
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AEROBIC & GENERAL CONDITIONING. CAST SPORT SCIENCE GROUP. ENERGETICS OVERVIEW. When looking at the development of aerobic fitness it is important to revisit the characteristics of the three distinct energy systems:. Short duration - high intensity. ATP-CP ANAEROBIC AEROBIC.

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AEROBIC & GENERAL CONDITIONING

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Aerobic general conditioning

AEROBIC& GENERAL CONDITIONING

CAST SPORT SCIENCE GROUP


Energetics overview

ENERGETICSOVERVIEW

  • When looking at the development of aerobic fitness it is important to revisit the characteristics of the three distinct energy systems:

Short duration - high intensity

  • ATP-CP

  • ANAEROBIC

  • AEROBIC

Long duration - low intensity


Energetics

Energetics

ATP-CP

ANAEROBIC

Energy/Power Output

AEROBIC

10 s 30 s 60 s 3 min15 min+

Time


Aerobic general conditioning

ATP-CP

  • Very high power

  • Very low capacity

  • Time to peak power (ms)

  • Peak power & capacity (~8 – 12s?)

Energy/Power Output

10 s 30 s 60 s 3 min15 min+

Time


Aerobic general conditioning

ANAEROBIC

  • High Power

  • Limited Capacity

  • Time to peak power (~8s)

  • Peak power (~40 – 70s)

  • Power capacity (~90 – 120s)

Energy/Power Output

10 s 30 s 60 s 3 min15 min+

Time


Aerobic general conditioning

AEROBIC

  • Low power

  • Very high capacity

  • Time to peak power (~180s)

  • Peak power (~3 – 5min)

  • Power capacity (extensive / hours)

Energy/Power Output

10 s 30 s 60 s 3 min15 min+

Time


Predominant energy pathways

Predominant Energy Pathways

0s12s 90s15mHours

ATP

Predominant system in ski racing

ATP-CP

ATP-CP & ANAEROBIC

ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC

AEROBIC

Immediate/short-term

ANAEROBIC systems

AEROBIC

system


Remember the key points

Remember the key points

  • LOW RATE of development of anaerobic capacity – low phosphocreatine (PC) content as well as the absence of PFK

  • Age 15 - 17 yrs, PC and PFK have improved, BUTremain lower than in adults….means that effective training of anaerobic capacity is limited

  • Maturation lends itself to aerobic training – growth of lungs, heart and muscle mass.


Aerobic general conditioning

INFLUENCE OF MATURATION ON PHYSIOLOGY

Improvement due to maturation!

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Annual gain in various

characteristics of performance

capacity of young athletes

Aerobic vs. Anaerobic development

Max anaerobic power

(Margaria)

Improvement in a year (%)

Exc CO2

VO2max

B[La] post

anaerobic exercise

AnT

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Age (years)

(Voitenko, 1985)


Aerobic general conditioning

Oxygen Delivery

BLOOD

O2

LUNGS

HEART

  • Adapted, Sutton

Fe

CIRCULATION

Oxygen Utilization

MUSCLE


Maximal aerobic power

MAXIMAL AEROBIC POWER

  • Maximum RATE at which oxygen can be taken in (lungs) , transported around the body (heart and blood) and utilized by various tissues (muscles)

    Typically reported as;

    • Litres per min (Absolute)

    • Millilitres per kilogram BDW per minute (Relative) (ml/kg/min)

    • LEGER BOUCHER


Maximal aerobic power1

MAXIMAL AEROBIC POWER

  • Strong aerobic base is important as it provides a foundation in which more intense training can be tolerated and the ability to recover from that intense training is enhanced.

  • Similar to a car…….break in the engine at low intensity to maximize the performance!


Maximal aerobic power2

High Intensity/

Short Duration

Maximal Aerobic Power

VO2

1 MET

A

B

Power


Maximal aerobic power3

Maximal Aerobic Power

Oxygen consumption, O2 deficit & O2 debt

1. Light to moderate exercise

O2 deficit

Steady rate VO2

Recovery VO2

(O2 debt)

Oxygen consumption

Rest Exercise Recovery


Aerobic general conditioning

Oxygen consumption, O2 deficit & O2 debt, continued

2. Heavy exercise

Oxygen requirement

O2 deficit

Recovery VO2

(O2 debt)

Max VO2

Oxygen consumption

Rest Exercise Recovery

The oxygen debt (recovery oxygen consumption) reflects both

the anaerobic metabolism of exercise and the physiological

adjustments that occur in recovery


Aerobic general conditioning

Blood lactate kinetics

Typical in ski racing

Strenuous

Heavy

Blood Lactate Concentration (mM/L)

Moderate/sustainable

Very light

Time

Rest (0.8-1.2 mM/L)


Maximal aerobic power the concept of anaerobic threshold ant

Maximal Aerobic Power& the concept of ‘Anaerobic Threshold’ (AnT)

VO2max

HRmax

VO2 @ AnT

HR @ AnT

Heart Rate

Oxygen Consumption

PO/Speed

@ AnT

PO/Speed

@ VO2max

Power Output (or speed)


Maximal aerobic power the concept of ant

Maximal Aerobic Power& the concept of AnT

B[La] peak

HRmax

B[La] @ AnT

HR @ AnT

Heart Rate

Blood Lactate Conc.

Power Output (or speed)


Key points for training

KEY POINTS FOR TRAINING

  • Remember AIM document

    • Improve critical training history in train to train phase

    • Volume of training higher priority than intensive training ………… basis for future

  • GENERAL CONDITIONING (circuits and games)

    • Soccer, Ultimate, running, biking, swimming, rowing, roller blading etc

    • Extensive time periods with relatively little rest, coupled with ‘natural’ higher intensity bursts and longer recovery

    • Large and small muscle groups


Aerobic general conditioning

Develop a strong foundation of:

  • Specific basic sport skills; (Girls, 8-11; Boys, 9-12)

  • Agility, balance, coordination, speed (ABCs of Athleticism)

  • Running, throwing, jumping (ABCs of Athletics)

  • Kinesthesia, gliding, bouyancy, striking with implements (KGBs)

  • Catching, kicking with body parts (CKs)

Harre, 1971; Vlastovsky, 1976; Timakova, 1985; Bulgakova, 1986

Vorontsov, 2002


Aerobic general conditioning

Different patterns of system growth during childhood

MATURATION

100

80

60

40

20

0

Neural

Size attained as % of postnatal growth

General

Hormonal

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Age (years)

(Adapted from Scammon, 1930)


Training progression

Training Progression

Technique

Technique

+ Endurance

+ Circuit Tr.

Technique

+ Power

+ Str. Tr.

+ End. Tr.

AGE

8 13 16/18

Incorporate technical & fitness parameters with sport

performance for evaluation, up to at least 16 / 17 yrs old.


Aerobic general conditioning

PEAK HEIGHT VELOCITY & PEAK BONE MASS GROWTH

Height

Bone Mass

Males

Females

Relative increase per year

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Age (years)

(Adapted from Tanner, 1978 & Kahn, 1999)


Critical periods

Critical Periods

Aerobic Endurance:

Girls = 12-14 year

Boys = 12-16 year

Strength Possibilities:

Boys = 16-18

Girls = 14-16

(Balyi, 2002; Norris, 2002; Vorontsov, 2002)


Aerobic general conditioning

Training aspects & sequencing

  • Specifically referring to same day training:

    • Technical skill work before all other forms of training (i.e., no neuromuscular fatigue present!)

    • Pure speed before any other physical quality

    • ATP-PC before the lactate system

    • ATP-PC before the aerobic system

    • Lactate system before the aerobic system

    • higher quality aerobic (i.e., VO2max) before lower quality aerobic (i.e., aerobic endurance)

Balyi, NCI-Victoria


Secondary training effects

Primary Quality Trained

ATP-PC Power

ATP-PC Capacity

Lactate Power

Lactate Capacity

Max Aerobic Power

Aerobic Endurance (90%+)

Aerobic Endurance (75%-)

Potential Secondary Training Effect…

ATP-PC Power

ATP-PC Capacity

Lactate Capacity

Lactate Power

Max Aerobic Power

Lactate Capacity

Max Aerobic Power

Little effect/trained athletes

Secondary training effects

Marion, 1995


Key points for training1

Key Points for Training

  • >80% of age-group champions ‘disappear’ from sport horizon before the optimal age of top achievement

  • Early maturation = early cessation of growth & development!

  • Never neglect ‘speed’ & progression to fast execution of skill

Harre, 1971; Vlastovsky, 1976; Timakova, 1985; Bulgakova, 1986

Vorontsov, 2002


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