Chapter 4: Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomena and Various Complexities
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Chapter 4: Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomena and Various Complexities

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Chapter 4: Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomena and Vario...

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1. Chapter 4: Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomena and Various Complexities Basic Terms Two Extensions Three Limitations Additional Phenomena ?close your eyes, imagine that it is a hot summer day and that you are at a beach. The sun is scorching. You are getting hotter and hotter, you can no longer stand it, you run toward the ocean and splash in the shallow water. Then you decide to swim out to deeper water, and enjoy cooling off after being in the hot sun.? Play music NS: music ? CS US: sight of shark fin UR: fear CR: fear So how does classical conditioning work? Anyone remind me? NS paired with US, US ? UR, NS becomes a CS when CS ? CR ?close your eyes, imagine that it is a hot summer day and that you are at a beach. The sun is scorching. You are getting hotter and hotter, you can no longer stand it, you run toward the ocean and splash in the shallow water. Then you decide to swim out to deeper water, and enjoy cooling off after being in the hot sun.? Play music NS: music ? CS US: sight of shark fin UR: fear CR: fear So how does classical conditioning work? Anyone remind me? NS paired with US, US ? UR, NS becomes a CS when CS ? CR

2. Explain graph, what to look for, what to put in answers strength of conditioning increases rapidly during the first few trials then gradually levels off over subsequent trials. Remember, we are talking about associating a conditioned stim with an unconditioned stim But learning can happen better in some situations than others This asymptote (and speed of learning) depends on a lot of things Intensity of US (produces stronger response, quicker learning) Intensity of NS (same thing) Explain graph, what to look for, what to put in answers strength of conditioning increases rapidly during the first few trials then gradually levels off over subsequent trials. Remember, we are talking about associating a conditioned stim with an unconditioned stim But learning can happen better in some situations than others This asymptote (and speed of learning) depends on a lot of things Intensity of US (produces stronger response, quicker learning) Intensity of NS (same thing)

3. Acquisition Formation of a learned response to a conditioned stimulus through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus The thing is, once an association is made, then what? Do we want to keep learning in place, or get rid of it?The thing is, once an association is made, then what? Do we want to keep learning in place, or get rid of it?

4. Extinction Elimination or weakening of a learned, conditioned response by removal of the unconditioned stimulus when the conditioned stimulus is present CR decreases Sometimes a CR does not become extinct simply because the person avoids all contact with the CS, so never ?learns? that the CS might occur without the USCR decreases Sometimes a CR does not become extinct simply because the person avoids all contact with the CS, so never ?learns? that the CS might occur without the US

5. Spontaneous Recovery Re-emergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a rest period Can happen after a rest period Or if US is again paired just a few times with the CSCan happen after a rest period Or if US is again paired just a few times with the CS

6. After repeated extinction trials spontaneous response gets smaller and smaller Ex. speaking in front of people, may get to where it does bother you, but go again another time and it will (US ? anxiety, NS ? standing in front of a group of people, UR ? sweating) What this means is that extinction is not just unlearning a response It is learning something NEW (to INHIBIT their learned response) So extinction is really just a build-up of inhibition After repeated extinction trials spontaneous response gets smaller and smaller Ex. speaking in front of people, may get to where it does bother you, but go again another time and it will (US ? anxiety, NS ? standing in front of a group of people, UR ? sweating) What this means is that extinction is not just unlearning a response It is learning something NEW (to INHIBIT their learned response) So extinction is really just a build-up of inhibition

7. disinhibition the sudden recovery of a response during an extinction procedure when a novel stimulus is introduced. Basic Phenomena Normal inhibition fails to build upNormal inhibition fails to build up

8. Generalization & Discrimination Generalization The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus Learning to associate two items might not be very useful if that was as far as it goes Learn to fear only the spider that bit you Would be better to learn to fear spiders similar to the one that bit you Which is what happens ? generalization More similar a stimulus is, the stronger the response Learning to associate two items might not be very useful if that was as far as it goes Learn to fear only the spider that bit you Would be better to learn to fear spiders similar to the one that bit you Which is what happens ? generalization More similar a stimulus is, the stronger the response

9. Generalization & Discrimination Discrimination The ability to distinguish between different stimuli, tendency for a response to be elicited by one stimulus and not another (sometimes similar) stimulus

10. Albert conditioned to fear a white laboratory rat Each time he reached for the rat, Watson made a loud clanging noise right behind Albert Albert?s fear generalized to anything white and furry Including rabbits and Santa Claus Watson & Little Albert Ideas later elaborated by Watson, tied directly to humans and emotions Ideas later elaborated by Watson, tied directly to humans and emotions

11. CS+ - excitatory conditioned stimulus ? predicts presense of another US CS- - inhibitory stimulus ? stimulus predicts absense of another US CS+ - excitatory conditioned stimulus ? predicts presense of another US CS- - inhibitory stimulus ? stimulus predicts absense of another US

12. Ellipse got more and more like circle Dog would salivate (discriminate for some, but when ellipse close to being a circle, he got agitated) Pavolov thought maybe this is how some human neuroses developed Stress of extreme uncertainty develop neurosis Important point also: dogs had different reactions, some anxious, some catatonic, some just fine Subjects have differences in how they learn Ellipse got more and more like circle Dog would salivate (discriminate for some, but when ellipse close to being a circle, he got agitated) Pavolov thought maybe this is how some human neuroses developed Stress of extreme uncertainty develop neurosis Important point also: dogs had different reactions, some anxious, some catatonic, some just fine Subjects have differences in how they learn

13. Extensions to Classical Conditioning Higher-Order Conditioning A stimulus associated with one CS can also become a CS First-order conditioning Second-order conditioning The second CS will elicit a weaker CR than first CS This is often used is advertisements ? product associated with having a good time (pop commercials)The second CS will elicit a weaker CR than first CS This is often used is advertisements ? product associated with having a good time (pop commercials)

14. In this example of higher-order conditioning, a metronome is paired with food and becomes a CS1 for salivation, following which a light paired with the metronome becomes a CS2 for salivation. (Source: Nairne, 2000.) Higher-order cond will happen when first association already made, then a second associated made laterIn this example of higher-order conditioning, a metronome is paired with food and becomes a CS1 for salivation, following which a light paired with the metronome becomes a CS2 for salivation. (Source: Nairne, 2000.) Higher-order cond will happen when first association already made, then a second associated made later

15. Extensions to Classical Conditioning Sensory Preconditioning A stimulus associated with one CS can also become a CS First-order conditioning Second-order conditioning Can also happen that two items were associated previously (not necessarily through classical conditioning), then US paired with one of the NS (that was already paired) Other stimulus NOT paired will also elicit CR, even though other stimulus never paired with USCan also happen that two items were associated previously (not necessarily through classical conditioning), then US paired with one of the NS (that was already paired) Other stimulus NOT paired will also elicit CR, even though other stimulus never paired with US

16. In this example of sensory preconditioning, a dog is presented with several pairings of a light and a metronome. The metronome is then paired with food and becomes a conditioned stimulus for salivation. As a result, the light that was previously paired with the metronome also becomes a conditioned stimulus for salivation. (Source: Nairne, 2000.) In this example of sensory preconditioning, a dog is presented with several pairings of a light and a metronome. The metronome is then paired with food and becomes a conditioned stimulus for salivation. As a result, the light that was previously paired with the metronome also becomes a conditioned stimulus for salivation. (Source: Nairne, 2000.)

17. Limitations to Classical Conditioning compound stimulus We will be talking about why conditioning sometimes does not happen These all are forms of specificity conditioning compound stimulus A complex stimulus that consists of the simultaneous presentation of two or more individual stimuli We will be talking about why conditioning sometimes does not happen These all are forms of specificity conditioning compound stimulus A complex stimulus that consists of the simultaneous presentation of two or more individual stimuli

18. Limitations to Classical Conditioning Overshadowing It does not make sense to associate everything about a situation (all possible neutral stimuli) with US Bee sting: sight of wasp, sight of butterfly, trees overhead, presence of pines, smell of pines, hearing the bark of a dog Sound of creaking step: mother coming down to basement ? stop all activity that is forbidden (put away racy book, put away drugs, like pot or alcohol, stop kissing, straighten clothes) Band example: positive feelings associated with most salient member (lead singer), and not to other members Overshadowing The phenomenon whereby the most salient member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a CS and thereby interferes with conditioning of the less salient member. It does not make sense to associate everything about a situation (all possible neutral stimuli) with US Bee sting: sight of wasp, sight of butterfly, trees overhead, presence of pines, smell of pines, hearing the bark of a dog Sound of creaking step: mother coming down to basement ? stop all activity that is forbidden (put away racy book, put away drugs, like pot or alcohol, stop kissing, straighten clothes) Band example: positive feelings associated with most salient member (lead singer), and not to other members Overshadowing The phenomenon whereby the most salient member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a CS and thereby interferes with conditioning of the less salient member.

19. In this example of overshadowing, a bright light and a faint-sounding metronome are simultaneously presented as a compound stimulus and paired with food. After several pairings, the compound stimulus becomes a CS that elicits salivation. However, when each member of the compound is tested separately, the bright light elicits salivation but the faint-sounding metronome does not. (Source: Nairne, 2000.) This is true even though if faint metronome paired with food by itself, conditioning would happen just fineIn this example of overshadowing, a bright light and a faint-sounding metronome are simultaneously presented as a compound stimulus and paired with food. After several pairings, the compound stimulus becomes a CS that elicits salivation. However, when each member of the compound is tested separately, the bright light elicits salivation but the faint-sounding metronome does not. (Source: Nairne, 2000.) This is true even though if faint metronome paired with food by itself, conditioning would happen just fine

20. Limitations to Classical Conditioning Blocking Blocking The phenomenon whereby the presence of an established CS interferes with conditioning of a new CS. Blocking The phenomenon whereby the presence of an established CS interferes with conditioning of a new CS.

21. In this example of blocking, a light is first conditioned as a CS for salivation. When the light is then combined with a metronome to form a compound stimulus, and this compound stimulus is paired with food, the metronome does not become a conditioned stimulus. The presence of the already established CS blocks conditioning to the metronome. (Source: Nairne, 2000.) Think about this in terms of subject is getting no new info about when US will appear, so no need to learn anythingIn this example of blocking, a light is first conditioned as a CS for salivation. When the light is then combined with a metronome to form a compound stimulus, and this compound stimulus is paired with food, the metronome does not become a conditioned stimulus. The presence of the already established CS blocks conditioning to the metronome. (Source: Nairne, 2000.) Think about this in terms of subject is getting no new info about when US will appear, so no need to learn anything

22. Limitations to Classical Conditioning Latent Inhibition Latent Inhibition The phenomenon whereby a familiar stimulus is more difficult to condition as a CS than an unfamiliar (novel) stimulus Latent Inhibition The phenomenon whereby a familiar stimulus is more difficult to condition as a CS than an unfamiliar (novel) stimulus

23. In latent inhibition, familiar stimuli are more difficult to condition as CSs than novel stimuli. If a dog has, on many occasions, heard the sound of a metronome prior to conditioning, then it will be difficult to obtain conditioning to the metronome using a standard number of conditioning trials. (Source: Nairne, 2000.) Rabbit attacked by wolf, makes more sense to associate fear with unfamiliar scent of wolf, not familiar scent of grass People with shizo less able to display latent inhibition, less able to attend to salient info, instead of distractions In latent inhibition, familiar stimuli are more difficult to condition as CSs than novel stimuli. If a dog has, on many occasions, heard the sound of a metronome prior to conditioning, then it will be difficult to obtain conditioning to the metronome using a standard number of conditioning trials. (Source: Nairne, 2000.) Rabbit attacked by wolf, makes more sense to associate fear with unfamiliar scent of wolf, not familiar scent of grass People with shizo less able to display latent inhibition, less able to attend to salient info, instead of distractions

24. Additional Phenomena Temporal Conditioning Dog fed every ten mins, will start salivating at 10 min mark each time Temporal Conditioning A form of classical conditioning in which the CS is the passage of time Dog fed every ten mins, will start salivating at 10 min mark each time Temporal Conditioning A form of classical conditioning in which the CS is the passage of time

25. Additional Phenomena Occasion Setting A procedure in which a stimulus (known as an occasion setter) signals that a CS is likely to be followed by the US with which it is associated Alcohol absent: mild abuse : mild anxiety Alcohol present (smell of alcohol): severe abuse: strong anxietyA procedure in which a stimulus (known as an occasion setter) signals that a CS is likely to be followed by the US with which it is associated Alcohol absent: mild abuse : mild anxiety Alcohol present (smell of alcohol): severe abuse: strong anxiety

26. Additional Phenomena US Revaluation US Revaluation A process that involves the post-conditioning presentation of the US at a different level of intensity, thereby altering the strength of response to the previously conditioned CS Metronome + small amount of food ? weak salivation Metronome ? weak salivation Large amount of food (no metronome) ? strong salivation Metronome (no food) ? strong salivationUS Revaluation A process that involves the post-conditioning presentation of the US at a different level of intensity, thereby altering the strength of response to the previously conditioned CS Metronome + small amount of food ? weak salivation Metronome ? weak salivation Large amount of food (no metronome) ? strong salivation Metronome (no food) ? strong salivation

27. Additional Phenomena Pseudocondtioning Pseudocondtioning A situation in which an elicited response that appears to be a CR is actually the result of sensitization rather than conditioning. Light (brief) + shock ? leg flexion Light ? leg flexion Beep of sound (brief) ? also leg flexion, altho never paired What we really did was just condition dog to any sudden stimulus Same thing with veterans of war ? react to loud soundsPseudocondtioning A situation in which an elicited response that appears to be a CR is actually the result of sensitization rather than conditioning. Light (brief) + shock ? leg flexion Light ? leg flexion Beep of sound (brief) ? also leg flexion, altho never paired What we really did was just condition dog to any sudden stimulus Same thing with veterans of war ? react to loud sounds


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