Traffic detection systems
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Traffic Detection Systems. CEE 320 Steve Muench. Outline. What are traffic detectors? Traffic detector importance Detector types Use Example. What Are Traffic Detectors?. Traffic Detection Systems Structure. Detector. Processor/Controller. Storage. Why Is Traffic Detection Important?.

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Traffic detection systems

Traffic Detection Systems

CEE 320Steve Muench


Outline

Outline

  • What are traffic detectors?

  • Traffic detector importance

  • Detector types

  • Use Example


What are traffic detectors

What Are Traffic Detectors?


Traffic detection systems structure

Traffic Detection Systems Structure

Detector

Processor/Controller

Storage


Why is traffic detection important

Why Is Traffic Detection Important?


Why is traffic detection important1

Why Is Traffic Detection Important?

Freeway Monitoring


Why is traffic detection important2

Why Is Traffic Detection Important?

Actuated Signal Control


Why is traffic detection important3

Why Is Traffic Detection Important?

Ramp Meter Control


Why is traffic detection important4

Why Is Traffic Detection Important?

Road Discipline Enforcement


Why is traffic detection important5

Why Is Traffic Detection Important?

Dynamic Traffic Assignment


Why is traffic detection important6

ATIS

Why Is Traffic Detection Important?

!

!

E-Message Sign

Control Center

Quality Data


Traffic detector types

Traffic Detector Types

  • Inductive loops

  • Video

  • Microwave

  • Infrared

  • Acoustic

  • Radar

  • Magnetic

  • Radio frequency

  • Global positioning system (GPS)


Share of detector types at new atms sites

Share of Detector Types at new ATMS Sites


Popular traffic detector types

Popular Traffic Detector Types

Inductive loops

Video Image Processors (VIPs)


Popular traffic detector types1

Popular Traffic Detector Types

Remote Traffic Microwave Sensor (RTMS)

Photos and picture from Electronic Integrated Systems, Inc.


Popular traffic detector types2

Popular Traffic Detector Types

Magnetic Sensors

Infrared Sensors


Popular traffic detector types3

Popular Traffic Detector Types

Radio Frequency Tag


Popular traffic detector types4

Popular Traffic Detector Types

ASIM TT 298: Doppler RADAR, ultrasonic, passive infrared.

Volume, classification, speed, occupancy, queue detection, wrong-way


Popular traffic detector types5

Popular Traffic Detector Types

ASIM TT 298: Doppler RADAR, ultrasonic, passive infrared.


Popular traffic detector types6

Popular Traffic Detector Types

Intersection Control

Traffic Data Acquisition

= infrared (counting)

= ultrasonic (vehicle height)

= microwave doppler radar (speed)


Popular traffic detector types7

Popular Traffic Detector Types

GPS-Based Tracking Systems


Inductance loop detectors

Inductance Loop Detectors

  • Most popular

Photos from Never

Fail Loop Systems, Inc.


Inductance loop detectors1

Inductance Loop Detectors


Inductance loop detectors2

Inductance Loop Detectors

  • A Schematic Diagram

  • The inductance seen at the loop terminals is modified by the capacitance and results in an inductance which increases with increased operating frequency.


Loop detector signatures

Loop Detector Signatures


Inductance loop detectors3

Field Component

Traffic Control Cabinet

Pull Box

Lead-In Cable

Loop wires

DEUs

Inductance Loop Detectors


Inductance loop detectors4

Inductance Loop Detectors


Inductance loop detectors5

Inductance Loop Detectors

Loop inductance decreases when a car is on top of it.

Inductance

T = ton

0

ton

T = toff

toff

Time


Inductance loop detectors6

Inductance

High

low

Tn

tn1

tn2

tn3

Tn+1

Time

Inductance Loop Detectors

  • Single loops can measure:

    • Occupancy (O): % of time loop is occupied per interval

    • Volume (N): vehicles per interval

Single loop measurements?


Dual loop detector

Dual Loop Detector

  • Formed by two consecutive single loop detectors placed a short distance apart

ldist

lloop


Dual loop detectors

Dual Loop Detectors

  • Dual loop measurements

ldist

lloop

T = t2

T = t1

oti = on-time for loop detector i

Measured vehicle lengths are used to classify vehicles into different categories, such as long and short.


Inductance loop detectors7

Only 20 sec aggregated data are available from TSMC

TSMC

queried

20 sec data

(e.g. 0:00:00 3, 0.98

0:00:20 2, 0.65)

measured data

per 20 sec.

real time

measurements

Loops

Station

cabinet

User

Inductance Loop Detectors


Can we get speed from a single loop

Can We Get Speed from a Single Loop?

  • Perhaps…

EVL ~ vehicle length + detector length


Can we get speed from a single loop1

Can We Get Speed from a Single Loop?

  • Using typical traffic data

100 converts percent to decimal


Inductance loop detectors8

Inductance Loop Detectors


Video image processors

Video Image Processors


Video image processors1

Video Image Processors


A use example ramp metering

A Use Example: Ramp Metering


Ramp meter schematic

Ramp Meter Schematic

Diagram from ITS Decision website


Example sr 520

Example: SR 520


What is the difference

What is the Difference?


Primary references

Primary References

  • Cosgrove, C. and Cutchin, C. (2003). ITS Decision. Website hosted by the California Center for Innovative Transportation at the University of California and Berkeley and Caltrans. http://www.calccit.org/itsdecision

  • Wang, Y. (2004). CEE 599F, Advanced Traffic Detection Systems Course Pak. Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington.


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