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ASEAN Qualifications Framework: Current Architecture and Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning Que Anh Dang ASEM LLL Hub ( [email protected] ) Kuala Lumpur, 14-15 November 2011. 1. Outline. Context and Concept of NQFs and RQFs

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ASEAN Qualifications Framework: Current Architecture and Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

Que Anh Dang

ASEM LLL Hub ([email protected])

Kuala Lumpur, 14-15 November 2011

1


Outline
Outline Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

  • Context and Concept of NQFs and RQFs

  • Charateristics of NQFs and RQFs

  • Interplay between NQFs and RQF

  • ASEAN QF: Rationales,Developments, Current Architecture and Challenges

  • EQF holds lessons for ASEAN QF

2


Political and economic context
Political and Economic Context Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

  • NQF has its root in the Competence approach to vocational education

  • 1980s and 1990s: neo-liberal economic policies emphasized primary role of private sector and employers in the labour market.

  • Employment-led standards for (vocational) qualifications

  • Transfer control of vocational education from providers to employers

3


Political and economic context1
Political and Economic Context Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

  • From mid 1990s- 2000s: NQFs linked to lifelong learning, with a series of influential EU White papers

    • Accrediting all types of learning

    • Credit-based frameworks

    • Improve people’s employability

    • European-wide policies: Bologna Process (1999), Lisbon Strategy (2000), Copenhagen Process (2002)

4


Concepts of nqfs and rqfs
Concepts of NQFs and RQFs Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

  • NQF: A set of principles and criteria to specify qualifications in terms of standards, levels and outcomes

  • RQF: an instrument for the development and classification of qualifications between countries

5


Characteristics of rqfs
Characteristics of RQFs Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

RQFs usually:

  • Have less regulatory and more communicative purpose

  • Include a wide range of sectors of education and training

  • Have may of national and regional policies, conventions, protocols supporting

  • Have limited, often voluntary institutional arrangements for governance and management

6


Characteristics
Characteristics Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

  • NQFs:

  • Often top-down decision of governments

  • Single set of criteria

  • Single hierarchy with level descriptors

  • Learning outcomes

  • A set of benchmarks for assessement

  • Transparent and portable

7


Partial and comprehensive frameworks
Partial and comprehensive frameworks Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

  • Scope:

    • Qualification type: vocational or academic, privately or publicly owned.

    • Qualification level: limited to higher education, or covers all levels

    • Qualifcation sector: occupational sector or a region

8


Stages of rqf development
Stages of RQF Development Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

  • Exploring: awareness, understanding

  • Conceptualising: discussion papers

  • Testing: pilot sectoral projects

  • Implementing: legislation, funding

  • Reviewing: re-conceptualise, formal review

9


Interplay between nfqs and rqf
Interplay between NFQs and RQF Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

  • Prioritisation of NQF development

  • Prioritisation of Regional qualifications framework development

  • Parallel development of NQFs and RQF

  • Referencing process

10


European qualifications framework
European Qualifications Framework Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

  • Started in 2002, adopted in 2008

  • 31 member countries

  • 8 levels in 3 domains: Knowledge, Skills and Competence

  • Key actors: European Commission, European Training Foundation, CEDEFOP, expert groups, EQF Advisory group, National Coordination Point

11


Asean regional qualifications framework
ASEAN Regional Qualifications Framework Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

12


Asean regional qualifications framework developments
ASEAN Regional Qualifications Framework: Developments Lessons Learnt from the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

13


Asean regional qualifications framework current architecture
ASEAN Regional Qualifications Framework: Current Architecture

  • Enhancing Skills Recognition Systems in ASEAN (ASEAN Australia Programme, 2000-)

    • Regional Qualifications Framework in TVET: 4 levels of certificate, agreed by 5 ASEAN countries Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand.

  • Education and Training Governance: Capacity Building for NQFs (ASEAN, Australia and NewZealand, 2011-)

14



Asean 7 mras on sectoral qualifications m utual r ecognition a rrangement
ASEAN: 7 MRAs on sectoral qualifications Architecture(Mutual Recognition Arrangement)

  • Engineering Services (2005)

  • Architectual Services (2006)

  • Surveying Qualifications (2006)

  • Nursing Services (2006)

  • Medical Practitioners (2008)

  • Dental Practitioners (2008)

  • Accounting Services (2008)

  • (Source: Wongboonsin, 2010)

16


Asean regional qualifications framework rationales and charateristics
ASEAN Regional Qualifications Framework: ArchitectureRationales and Charateristics

  • Regionalism/Regionalisation

  • Economic implications

  • Weak foundations

  • Disparate geographic spread

  • Political restraints

  • No coordinating body

  • Lack of experts

17


Asean rqf observations
ASEAN RQF:Observations Architecture

  • Current enthusiasm- primarily driven by ideological and political forces

  • Pervasive role of donors and international agencies

  • ’Globalised’ competence-based approach: learning outcomes with different understandings

18


Eqf holds lessons for asean qf
EQF holds lessons for ASEAN QF Architecture

EQF: Political issue

  • political tool for regional integration

  • Not only a technical instrument implemented across countries, but also critical reform of qualifications systems and practices

    Administrative issue:

  • Coordinating bodies at regional and national levels

  • Methodologies for referencing process

  • Communication strategies

  • Zone of trust and mutual understanding

    Educational issue:

    - learning outcomes relate to assessment, curriculum and pedagogy

19


Food for thoughts
Food for thoughts Architecture

  • Do regional qualifications frameworks yield their benefits only when all or many countries have established NQFs?

  • Can regional qualification frameworks follow a prescriptive model and assume regulatory role given the power and heterogeneity of education and training systems in the countries within the region?

  • What potential and prospects exist (if any) to link EQF and ASEAN QF initiatives?

  • What further networking or agreements are desirable to develop articulation and acceptance between NQFs within and between the two regions?

  • Can these regional QFs be implemented if the concept of learning outcomes is still contested?

20


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