Greek young learners perceptions about foreign language learning and teaching
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Greek young learners’ perceptions about foreign language learning and teaching. Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey Areti-Maria Sougari Aristotle University of Thessaloniki . Reasons for investigating beliefs. Beliefs about LL influence Language learning behaviour (Erhman & Oxford 1995; Mori 1999)

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Greek young learners perceptions about foreign language learning and teaching

Greek young learners’ perceptionsabout foreign language learningand teaching

Angeliki Psaltou-Joycey Areti-Maria SougariAristotle University of Thessaloniki


Reasons for investigating beliefs
Reasons for investigating beliefs

Beliefs about LL influence

  • Language learning behaviour (Erhman & Oxford 1995; Mori 1999)

  • Attitudes, motivation, achievement (Riley 1996; Cain & Dweck 1995)


Beliefs about the teacher s role
Beliefs about the teacher’s role

  • Teachers’ beliefs often differ from learners’ beliefs about the teacher’s role in the LL process (Cortazzi & Jin 1996; Kern 1995; McCargar 1993)


The role of feedback
The role of feedback

  • Both, content-based and formal errors should be corrected (Radecki & Swales 1988)

  • Errors should be corrected from early stages (Yang 1999)

  • Learners should self-correct (Stern 1975)


Learner independence
Learner independence

  • Importance of educational and cultural background (Knowles 1976; Cameron 1990)

  • Learners want autonomy in learning (Cotterall 1995)

  • Importance of metacognitive knowledge (Wenden 1999)


Beliefs about learning strategies
Beliefs about learning strategies

  • Self-efficacy affects strategy use (Yang 1996)

  • Learning directly affects strategy use (Wen & Johnson 1997; Wenden 1999)

  • Gender affects strategy use (Bacon & Finnemann 1992)

  • Motivating course material affects strategy use (Pintrich 1989; Pintrich & De Groot 1990)


Learning context and beliefs
Learning context and beliefs

  • L2 vs FL context(Kojic-Sabo & Lightbown 1999)

  • Secondary learners and adult learners(Chesterfield and Chesterfield 1985; Kiely 2002)

    What about primary learners?

    Very limited research (Cain and Dweck 1995; Chamot and El-Dinary 1999; Purdie & Oliver 1999; Lin 2001; Lan and Oxford 2003)


Present study
Present study

Aim:

To explore learners’ beliefs about language learning

To suggest plausible ways for effective teaching strategies


Present study description
Present study: description

Subjects:N= 516

Primary – 6th grade (N= 262)

Lower Secondary – 3rd grade (N=254)

Instrument: Questionnaire (adapted from Cotterall 1995, 1999;

Oxford 1990) 5-point Likert scale (1: I totally disagree, 5: I totally agree)

  • Role of the teacher

  • Role of feedback

  • Nature of learning

  • Role of independent learning

  • Role of learning strategies

    Method of analysis:descriptive statistics (frequencies, means, t-tests)

    Significance level: p<.05



Results
RESULTS

  • T-test results

  • Significant differences between Primary Learners (PL) and Lower Secondary Learners (LSL) in the case of

  • Beliefs about the

  • Role of the teacher (PL= 3,4 /LSL= 3,2 / t = 3,5, p< .001)

  • Role of independent learning (PL= 3,6 /LSL= 3,3 / t = 3,5, p< .001)

  • Nature of learning (PL= 3,6 / LSL= 3,3 /t = 6,2, p< .001)

  • But not in the case of feedback (p > .05)


  • The older the learners are, the more inquisitive they become. They start looking at teaching and learning in a more critical way as they grow older.

  • Both groups of learners hold similar views as regards the role of feedback, because feedback is seen as part of their everyday reality, which affects the way they learn.


Results beliefs about the role of the teacher
Results: become. They start looking at teaching and learning in a more critical way as they grow older.Beliefs about the role of the teacher

PL hold stronger beliefs than LSL

The T is expected to

  • help them have good learning outcomes (PL=4,4 / LSL = 3,9 / t= 5,7, p< .001)

  • create opportunities for practice (PL=4,1 / LSL=3,8 / t= 2,7, p< .01)

  • let the learners know what they have learnt upon completion of a certain activity (PL= 3,9 / LSL= 3,5 / t= 3,5, p< .001)

  • decide how much time will be devoted to a certain activity(PL=3,9 / LSL=3,5 / t= 2,2, p< .05)

    But learners think alike when they are asked whether their Teacher should (no significant differences found, p> .05)

  • talk to them about their progress

  • tell them what to do

  • inform them about problems with their learning

  • give them regular tests


Beliefs about the role of feedback
Beliefs about become. They start looking at teaching and learning in a more critical way as they grow older.the role of feedback

PL believe that

  • they read carefully the corrections made in their written assignments to avoid similar mistakes(PL= 4,5 / LSL = 3,9 / t= 5,8, p< .001)

  • the teacher knows better than anyone else the progress they are making (PL= 4,1 / LSL= 3,7 / t= 3,2, p< .001)

    LSL believethey are more critical of what they say

  • possible errors may prove to be an obstacle (PL= 3,6 / LSL= 4,0 / t= 3,5, p<.001)


Beliefs about the nature of learning
Beliefs about become. They start looking at teaching and learning in a more critical way as they grow older.the nature of learning

Primary learners believe that

  • Knowledge of rules is important(PL= 4,3/LSL=4,0 / t= 3,3, p< .001)

  • Errors hinder learning(PL= 2,7 / LSL= 2,2 / t= 3,7, p< .001)

  • In order to talk, they should have the knowledge of rules (PL= 4,3 / LSL= 3,5 / t= 7,6, p< .001)

  • Learning can be achieved within a short time (PL=3,7 / LSL=3,4 / t= 3,7, p< .001)

  • Progress in English depends on the work performed in class(PL= 4,0/ LSL=3,6 / t= 4,3, p< .001)

    BUT lower secondary learners believe

  • Discussing about progress with the Teacher makes them feel uneasy (PL= 3,1 / LSL= 3,4 / t= -2,2, p< .05)


Beliefs about independent learning
Beliefs about become. They start looking at teaching and learning in a more critical way as they grow older.independent learning

Primary learners believe that

  • They try to find solutions to difficulties alone(PL=3,3 / LSL= 2,9 / t= 3,4, p< .001)

  • They can spot errors (speaking/writing)(PL=3,9/ LSL= 3,6 / t= 3,9, p< .001)


Beliefs about the role of learning strategies
Beliefs about become. They start looking at teaching and learning in a more critical way as they grow older.the role of learning strategies

Memory strategies (PL = 3,3 /LSL=2,6 / t= 7,2 , p< .001)

Cognitive strategies (PL = 3,3 /LSL= 3,1 / t= 3,8, p< .001)

Compensation strategies (PL =3,7 /LSL= 3,9 / t= -3, p< .01)

Metacognitive strategies (PL = 4,1 /LSL= 3,4/ t= 8,1, p< .001)

Social strategies (PL = 4,0 /LSL= 3,8 / t= 2,3, p< .05)


Beliefs about the role of learning strategies1
Beliefs about become. They start looking at teaching and learning in a more critical way as they grow older.the role of learning strategies

Memory strategies –

Making new sentences that incorporate new words (PL=3,2 / LSL=2,6 /t= 4,9, p< .001)

Regular revisions (PL= 3,9/ LSL=3,2 /t= 6,4, p<.001)

Cognitive strategies –

  • pronunciation practice(PL= 4,0/ LSL=3,2 / t=7,6, p<.001)

  • searching for similarities between MT and TL(PL=

    3,0/ LSL=2,8 / t=2,4, p< .05)

  • BUT deducing meaning from context without translation (PL= 2,8/LSL=3,3 / t= -3,894, p< .001)

  • Forming sentences in Greek and then translating (PL=3,4 /LSL=3,0 / t=3,1, p<.01)


Compensation strategies become. They start looking at teaching and learning in a more critical way as they grow older. – deducing meaning from context to avoid the use of a dictionary(PL= 3,4/ LSL= 3,7 / t= -2,8, p< .01)

Metacognitive strategies

studying English regularly (PL= 3,9/ LSL=2,8 / t= 9,1, p< .001 )

concerned about progress (PL= 4,3/ LSL=3,9 / t=4,2, p< .001)

Social strategies

asking for clarification (PL= 4,0/ LSL=3,8 / t=2,3, p< .05)


Conclusions
CONCLUSIONS become. They start looking at teaching and learning in a more critical way as they grow older.

  • The teacher is seen as a facilitator for learning.

  • The teacher should show them how to learn.

  • Errors are expected to be corrected by the teacher.

  • PL place importance on rules and the mother tongue.

  • Personal effort is considered important. Learners are quite autonomous.

  • PL dedicate more time for studying due to different priorities.

  • Learners make use of different strategies.

    PL use memory, cognitive, metacognitive and social strategies whereas LSL use compensation strategies.


Suggestions
Suggestions become. They start looking at teaching and learning in a more critical way as they grow older.

  • Teachers can relax and start enjoying teaching by adopting a facilitative role.

  • Learners can assume responsibility for their learning (willing and able) but they need to be shown how to perform certain things.


Thank you become. They start looking at teaching and learning in a more critical way as they grow older.

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