English Language Learners and Special Education: Who? What? When?Where? Why? How? Barbara Tedesco & Elizabeth Franks Roselle Public Schools Over-identification Diana v. California Board of Education.
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Barbara Tedesco & Elizabeth Franks
Roselle Public Schools
Diana v. California Board of Education.
Students classified due to language difference; inappropriate assessment.
Schools are very sensitive to possibility of mis-classification.
As a result, ELLs with real special education needs are left behind.Concerns
If the severe discrepancy or low functioning is due to one of the above factors, the student is NOT eligible for special education.
quality programs -
ELLs have to “catch
up” (15 month growth
in 10 mos.)
skilled use and
training of teachers
linguistic and cultural
making AYP as measured on benchmarks based on NCLB legislation
elimination of ineffective responses to failure: (retention, low level academics).
programs that support interventions.
Curriculum as window/mirrorSystemicAn acceptable and supportive school environment characterized by:
Research-Based Effective Models:
Reading First Initiatives
CREDE’s 5 pedagogical standards
Sufficient instructional time;
Careful lesson planning;
School-wide assessment system;
School-wide interventions for struggling readers;
Sound instructional approaches;
grouping, maximizing student learning
School climate of collaboration, strong leadership, and evidence of commitment;
High quality professional development;
School partnerships.Reading First Initiative
strategies (learning styles, multiple
* Consultation (PAC/I&RS)
Gather relevant data from initial profile
Gather current data
Classroom observations (effective use of strategies; appropriate interventions)
* Title I
* Community-based programs
* One-on-one tutoring, identifying the exact weakness and using strategies that address that deficiency.
Degree of L1 proficiency
Attitude toward target language community
Tolerance of learner for own errors
Amount of exposure
Manner of acquisition
Availability of language models
Attitude of target language community
Tolerance of errors by the community.Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition
Oral language proficiency assessment in (CREDE)both languages.
If teacher is not fluent in both languages, train and use interpreter (see recommendations for training and use of interpreters)
Some suggestions of instruments:
LAS, IPT, BVAT, Brigance Screening
If tests are unavailable in student’s native language, use informal assessment measures (language sample, oral story retelling, evaluation of receptive language).Language Dominance and Proficiency (1)
If L1 dominant, consider English language skills in achievement.
If English dominant, consider L1 in cognitive assessment.
If bilingual with no clear dominance, assess in both languages.Language Dominance and Proficiency (2)
- native language (if available)
- English language
- formal and informal procedures
- curriculum-based assessment
Personnel - Hierarchy of Preferred Models
Contract services of bilingual professional CST member
Train bilingual education professional to assist.
Train other bilingual professionals to assist
Train community professionals to serve as interpreters.
Train non-professionals in the district as interpreters.
Train community non-professionals as interpreters.
In all instances train assessment personnel (monolingual or bilingual).
(a) Written notice to the parent shall be provided and parent conferences required by this chapter shall be conducted in the language used for communication by the parent and student unless it is clearly not feasible to do so.
1. Foreign language interpreters or translators and sign language interpreters for the deaf shall be provided, when necessary, by the district board of education at no cost to the parent.
(b) If the native language is not a written language, the district board of education shall take steps to ensure that:
1. The notice is translated orally or by other means to the parent in his or her native language or other mode of communication;
2. That the parent understands the content of the notice; and
3. There is written documentation that the requirements of (b)1 and 2 above have been met
Prompting or giving clues
Using too many words
Giving directions that are too brief or too complicated
Over- or under-using reinforcement
Recording assessment data incorrectly, if applicable.
Observe the student for the following behaviors:
Uses of gestures to replace words
False starts, word repetitions, perseveration
Language and articulation disordersObservation of Interpretation Session
(d) An initial evaluation shall consist of a multi-disciplinary assessment in all areas of suspected disability. Such evaluation shall include assessment by at least two members of the child study team and other specialists in the area of disability as required or as determined necessary. Each evaluation of the student shall:
1. Include, where appropriate, or required, the use of a standardized test(s) which shall be:
i. Individually administered;
ii. Valid and reliable;
iii. Normed on a representative population; and
iv. Scored as either standard score with standard deviation or norm referenced scores with a cutoff score;
2. Include functional assessment of academic performance and, where appropriate, behavior.
f) A written report of the results of each assessment shall be prepared. Each written report shall be dated and signed by the individual(s) who conducted the assessment and shall include:…
3. If an assessment is not conducted under standard conditions, the extent to which it varied from standard conditions.
(a) The child study team, the parent and the regular education teacher of the student who has knowledge of the student’s educational performance or if there is no teacher of the student, a teacher who is knowledgeable about the district’s programs shall:…
(b) In making a determination of eligibility for special education and related services, a student shall not be determined eligible if the determinant factor is due to a lack of instruction in reading or math or due to limited English proficiency.
The committee determines eligibility: achievement.
Reviews all data.
Determines if child has a legally defined disability.
Provides assurances that the determinant factor of the student’s problems are not primarily the result of language, culture or not having the opportunity to learn.
The committee develops the IEP:
Includes present level of performance: L1 and L2
Annual goals for L1 and L2 (if applicable).
Amount of time in each setting and duration of services
Persons responsible for implementation
Strategies appropriate to disability and language and culture.Eligibility and IEP Development
(c) When developing the IEP, the IEP team shall:
4. In the case of a student with limited English proficiency, consider the language needs of the student as related to the IEP.
6A:14-6.2 Provision of programs and services provided under N.J.S.A. 18A:46A-1 et seq. and 18A:46-19.1 et seq
(d) English as a second language shall be provided according to N.J.S.A. 18A:46A-2c.
Every day an old man walked a beach with a pail, picking up starfish that had been washed in by the tide, and throwing them back into the sea. One day, a young boy stopped the old man and asked, “ Why do you throw the starfish back ? It doesn’t matter. They will only wash up on the shore again tomorrow?” The old man picked a starfish out of his pail, threw it as far as he could into the sea, and replied, “It mattered to that one.”
Cross-cultural Developmental Education Services
Dr. Catherine Collier info @ crosscultured.com
The National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt) A. Artiles, Vanderbilt University and J. Klingner, University of CO at Boulder www.Nccrest.org
CEC Division for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learnerswww.cec.sped.org
Center for Applied Linguistics www.cal.org
National Literacy Panel www.cal.nlp
Office English Language Acquisition www.ed.gov/offices/oela
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Intercultural Development Research Association
National Association of Bilingual Education www.nabe.org
New Jersey Administrative Code for
Special Education and Bilingual Education
English Language Learners: The siop model. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn &
linguistically diverse students. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth